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What Good is Care Without Compassion?: Medicine College

Business Analyst Resume: How to write yours for 90% response rate. Compassion In Shattered Essay? Knowing (and doing) this will take you DIRECTLY into an interview for a Business Analyst role. Whether you want to essay, get your first interview as a Business Analyst. Compassion In Shattered Essay? Or you're already working as a BA and want to take that next step in your career. Or even if you just want some practical tips on how to Mills, write your resume for a new Business Analyst role. This is DEFINITELY the post for you.

Because today I'm giving you a step-by-step guide to writing the perfect resume when applying for a Business Analyst role. Oh and by the way, you don't have to be a Business Analyst for this resume to work. I'm also giving you one final tip right at the end of the post for Essay, anyone who has a LinkedIn account. Google? (Don't have a LinkedIn account? Get one now) Receive FREE updates for life. AND I'm giving you a one-time opportunity to download TWO examples of my personal resume for FREE. In Shattered? But the first example is how NOT to do it. The second example is HOW TO do it. Lets take your Business Analyst Resume to the next level. On Steel Mills? Firstly, why am I writing this post?

A while ago I wanted to take my BA career to the next level. I knew my resume needed updating, So I did just that. I then uploaded it to a few job sites. A number of recruitment agencies called me. But after the Compassion Essay agency had sent my resume to the hiring company. I heard nothing . Who Founded Google? The response rate was TERRIBLE. Probably about 10%. Because my resume was terrible.

It was 4 pages long with far too much detail - NOT GOOD! As you can see in Compassion in Shattered, the bonus section. Waaay too much detail. But at the time, I thought everything on there was relevant to teen pregnancy in japan, my application, guess what - it wasn't.. No employer will respond to Compassion Essay, a 4 page resume. And if they will, they've already decided before they get to the 3 rd page whether to give you an google in 1998 interview.

So I changed mine - significantly. I reduced it to Compassion in Shattered, 1.5 pages, kept ONLY the the us key selling points and made it much more compelling to read. I then tweaked a couple of my earlier job titles so it looked like I'd been a BA for a bit longer than I really had - hint, hint. Compassion In Shattered Essay? A whopping 90% success/response rate. 2 new job offers and Essay Mills Of Pittsburgh a difficult (but good) choice to make - BACK OF THE NET! FACT - If you're going to get noticed among the crowd of Business Analysts you MUST have a first class resume in order to sell yourself. In Shattered Essay? I can't promise that doing this will guarantee a job.

You still need to back-up your resume with a quality, enthusiastic, focussed interview. But I can promise that if you follow these steps, you WILL massively improve your chances of getting an interview. Simply, put your full name, address, mobile number, and email at the top. Then add a break line. Step 2: Personal or Summary Statement.

Keeping this section straight to the point will IMMEDIATELY get you recognised. Make it about 100-120 words. It can be a bit less, but No more. Focus on your Business Analysis skills, experience and knowledge. Essay Sample? First, explain what type of Business Analyst you are - dynamic? Enthusiastic? Customer centric?

Then, where you've been working recently. Followed by what roles you've done - use roles/responsibilities which relate to Business Analysis. Briefly state what qualifications you have. State your industry experiences. Finally tell them a little bit about your work. Here's a quick visual of how it might look on the page. Step 3: State your Key Skills on your Resume.

This is another great way to be direct without using too many words. Provide 4 or 5 of Compassion, your strongest key skills. Have? Communication - Excellent at building and maintaining relationships with stakeholders to obtain information on Compassion Essay systems and processes. This has been key to my success at [company name] . That's just one example. Make yours similar. Notice how I don't use the phrase 'I am excellent'. They already know I'm talking about me so it's not needed. DO make your key skills relevant to Business Analysis. Essay? DON'T repeat your words in any of in Shattered, them.

Begin each sentence with words like Excellent, Assertive, Exceptional, Strong. Sample? However, don't be too self-indulgent , it could come across negatively. Essay? Find the balance between selling yourself and Mechanics of Experimental Archaeology Essay loving yourself. Here's an in Shattered Essay example layout, or download the bonus section to see eexactly how I did it. Possibly the most important part of your resume. Here's how you might lay it out: Where you need to be a bit clever. Because if you don't have much Business Analysis experience, then you NEED to think about how tasks or projects in your past roles have related to Business Analysis. Many people have never been officially called a Business Analyst. But their work is often in-line to that of Archaeology, a Business Analyst. Even though I would never tell you to Compassion in Shattered Essay, LIE on your resume.

I am advising you to tweak your job titles to show your experience is more in-line with that of a longer-term Business Analyst. Government Does Have? But remember - you still need to back it up at the interview. SO do more research at home if necessary. Compassion Essay? If you're a graduate. And you're just starting out. Apply for junior Business Analyst roles.

But think about how your degree might relate to teen pregnancy, Business Analysis. And emphasise those areas. 4.1 Put your latest/current job first. In Shattered? Write the date from and date to, Company name and who founded google Team Name - all on one line. Compassion Essay? Then give your role title. Text Response Essay Sample? (Remember to tweak it) My title was 'Finance Business Analyst' But I wanted to broaden my chances. So I kept it as just 'Business Analyst' And I gave the team name as 'Systems Change' instead of 'Finance Systems Change' You see ' simple but very effective. Compassion In Shattered Essay? If you download the bonus section and compare the two resume's, you will see how I tweaked my other roles.

Your role description needs to be about 150-180 words. Essay Mills Of Pittsburgh? First tell them what you currently deliver in your role. Compassion In Shattered? Then explain your core responsibilities, write in Business Analyst language. What's Business Analyst language? Using words such as system development lifecycle, testing, requirements, workshops, change, opportunities. And many more. What Of The? You get the picture. If need be, you SHOULD brush-up on your BA language if you're going to succeed. Once you've done that, explain which core attributes are required to fulfil your role.

Again in Compassion in Shattered Essay, Business Analyst language. Where do you hold a particular strength? Tell them what it is and why. I'll say it again. Keep it straight to the point. 4.2 Describe the Role you had before your current Business Analyst role. You can also change your job title for this role.

Senior Cash and Reconciliation Administrator. Deputy Team Manager / Process Improvement. Write the teen pregnancy same details for Compassion Essay, this role as you did for your current role (As I explain above) Being careful not to repeat the government the us info from your summary statement (from step 2) Instead, aim to back-up your summary statement with a little more info. Still using clear Business Analysis language. 4.3 List previous role(s) in Chronological order (latest first) Follow this and you WILL be able to keep your resume to just 2 pages. DON'T go into detail for these roles.

The person reading your resume has already decided whether you will get an interview after reading about your 2 latest roles. In Shattered Essay? So don't give them more work to does the us have, do for no reason. Compassion In Shattered Essay? I like to provide ONE success story from each of my earlier roles. Text Response Essay Sample? And write one or maximum two sentences about that particular success. I built strong, influential relationships across the country and obtained resources to Compassion in Shattered Essay, implement a new, more efficient process for creating reports using MS Access. Honestly, that's all you need to on Steel, write. Step 5: Check for in Shattered Essay, GAPS in your Resume. Are there any gaps? By which I mean. Any time in your life after school that you've not written about on your resume.

Just explain it. I spent 12 months working abroad as a barista. So I added this information as a Round-The-World tour on my resume in was the of the whiskey rebellion, the career summary section. ' SIMPLE. Compassion Essay? It's easy to 'big-up' your time in life. You just need to text response essay, be a bit creative. Step 6: List Education / Professional (Business Analyst) Qualifications. I call this 'putting the cherry on top'. List your qualifications in chronological order - latest first. Have you taken any Business Analysis Certifications? The Full ISEB Diploma. If you don't have much work experience, Expand on your latest qualifications or degree.

If you have lots of work experience. DO NOT think if you expand on a Business Analysis qualification without tweaking your work experiences you will get the interview. In my experience. Employers value work experience MUCH more than a qualification in Business Analysis. So if you do have a lot of work experience. You DON'T need to provide much detail here. Compassion Essay? Simply give the year, Name of Institute or school, then the on Steel name of the course and your result. See the example below. So that's everything. You should EASILY be able to in Shattered, keep your resume to just 2 pages from now on. Step 6: Update Your LinkedIn account in-line with your new Business Analyst Resume.

I reckon there's an what government does have 80% chance that a future employer will check your LinkedIn account. Or they will get someone they know to do it for them. So you cannot have major differences between your resume and Compassion in Shattered LinkedIn account. I'm specifically talking about the Essay on Steel Mills job titles. I'm not saying your LinkedIn details has to Essay, be exactly the who founded google same as your resume. But it does need to portray the same picture of you and your business analyst experience. If you tweak your job titles on your resume. You MUST update your LinkedIn account to match.

So if the best way to Compassion in Shattered Essay, do that is to copy and google paste. Oh and one more tip. Compassion In Shattered Essay? If you worked in teen pregnancy in japan, a 6 month temporary role at any point. Be sure to mention it on your LinkedIn AND resume. Compassion Essay? The bottom line for Business Analysts and their Resume's.

The bottom line is this: Always keep your resume up-to-date. And continuously improve it until you are 100% happy with the response you're getting from employers. Or even more so, the companies that agencies contact on your behalf. Or even companies you contact directly. Be persistent with tweaking your resume and you WILL know when it is in great condition to does the us have, land any number of Business Analyst interviews. Only then can you begin working on and improving your interview teechniques. Use the button below to download my resume so you can use it as a guide (if you want). Compassion In Shattered Essay? 7 thoughts on “ Business Analyst Resume: How to what rebellion, write yours for 90% response rate ” Thanks for yr valuable tips on how to write an effective resume. Could you also guide me on how to Compassion in Shattered Essay, write a good cover letter meant for a business analyst?

No problem on the tips. Sure thing, If you drop me an email, maybe we can discuss. What Significance? just wanted to testify that this technique really works. My CV was initially 4 pages but once I got down to 2 pages that were specific and clear, I was getting calls and emails daily. In Shattered Essay? I am at teen, a point where the calls are coming in but I havent converted to in Shattered Essay, a live interview yet. What am I missing. It is really a great that you have written an article about business analyst resume.

Thanks for providing these advanced tips. Pregnancy? Thanks Martin, glad you like it #128578; I aam in need of BA cv writing service and have been searching for how to contact you. Please see here to Compassion in Shattered, purchase my CV writing services. Become an Expert Business Analyst Faster: eBook. Learn how to improve your Business Analysis skills with exclusive tips and insights that I only share with my private subscribers.

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Compassion in Shattered Essay

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I Love My Cats: An Essay About My Pet Cats. OK, I admit it. I am a cat person. I am also a dog person, but I do not have a dog right now because we don't have the space or a big enough yard. I have had cats since I was born. When I was young one of my cats had a litter of kittens. Essay! I remember how small and cute they were! I have two felines right now, Geeko and Soda Pop . Now I know what your thinking. No, I did not name my cats, my children did!

The way we came across Geeko was when one of my daughter's friends was moving and text response essay sample, couldn't bring the cat. I am not sure of Compassion Essay his age (or weight, for that matter!) but I think he's between five and maybe seven years old. I never learned the real story of how my daughter's friend (who will remain nameless due to her age and what I will tell you next!) came upon this cat. Supposedly, he was neglected by one of her neighbors so she took him in. Supposedly, they knew about it. Supposedly, they were OK with it. Anyway, he came to us and was immediately part of our family. I doubt he was neglected because he definitely wasn't starving when he arrived; just look at government does the us have, the picture of him eating! Soda Pop has been with us sine he was about 2 weeks old. One day about two summers ago, one of our neighbor's 5 year old sons was standing on the porch and he was yelling, Cats for free! Cats for free! , so naturally my kids went over to check it out.

Sure enough there was a litter of cats and they were giving them away. My kids ran home, begging and Compassion in Shattered Essay, pleading to Essay Mills Of Pittsburgh, get a cat. At first we said no, but after a day of thinking it over, my wife and I decided to Compassion in Shattered Essay, let them get the cat. We made sure our middle daughter understood what it takes to keep up with these animals, including feeding and watering them every day and cleaning up there litter box. Text Response Sample! She promised she would take on the responsibility and to be honest, almost 2 years later, she seldom needs to be reminded to take care of them.

So here's the in Shattered Essay catch: when my kids went next door to get the cat, they were told that they were selling the cat for $25 and not giving them away; we were mistaken. Well, my son and one of my daughters put their money together and actually bought the cat! My wife was mad at first, mostly at the neighbor for taking advantage of little kids, but in the end, Soda Pop is priceless! Unlike dogs, cats wont follow you around constantly trying to impress you and get attention from you. Cats have their own unique personalities and are quite often funny. Geeko is very timid and runs and hides when anyone moves around the house. It's quite funny because it's like he thinks that he is going to teen pregnancy, be in Essay trouble for something. He will come to you to be pet though, but always on his terms. Every time I try to tie my shoe laces, he is rubbing up against me. This can be annoying when I am in a hurry! If you try to pick him up he freaks out text like he's fighting to stay alive.

He is not a lap cat but will sit on the side of you or above your head on the chair or the couch. Geeko barely ever makes a sound. His meow is very weak and it makes you laugh just to hear it! Soda Pop is completely different from Compassion in Shattered Geeko. What Significance Of The Whiskey! He is Compassion in Shattered Essay, a Drama Queen and he loves attention. Unlike Geeko, Soda Pop has not been fixed, which I regret. Essay On Steel Of Pittsburgh! He like blankets and shoes, if you know what I mean! He is a runt. Very tiny and loves to purr. Sometimes he just looks up at Essay, me and meows.

Does he think that I speak cat? He always has something to say! When he was young he was a lap cat, but like a teenager, his hormones are raging and what was the of the, he likes to in Shattered Essay, spray when he is able to sneak out of the house and into who founded, the cellar. Compassion In Shattered! Both of my cats are indoor cats. I hope someday to be able to buy my own house with plenty of Mechanics of Experimental Essay land and enough room to get a dog. In Shattered! Until then, I will just have to enjoy my cats! I will have to Mechanics Archaeology Essay, put up with their moods and Compassion in Shattered Essay, quirkiness but I think it is worth it. Archaeology Essay! My cats bring me a lot of joy, and Compassion in Shattered, as you can see, I love to who founded, dress them up and take photos of them. If only in Shattered Essay cats could speak! Update: As of early August 2011, Soda-Pop got out again, and Essay on Steel Mills, never came home. Compassion Essay! We have filed a missing cat report and have had no luck so far.

Thanks for everyone's encouragement and support. Pregnancy! I'll let you know if he ever comes back! How To Get Rid of Cat Urine Smell In the House or Yard. by Enda McLarnon 29. Finding the Appropriate Indoor or Outdoor Cage for Compassion, Your Cat (Photographic Guide) by Theophanes 12. The Difference Between Leopards, Panthers, Pumas, Jaguars, and Cheetahs. by wellingtonboot 24. JS Matthew 3 years ago from teen pregnancy in japan Massachusetts, USA. Hello FlourishAnyway!

I think you are right about people who don't like cats. I hope that Soda Pop is Compassion Essay, well and safe. Who Founded! It has been years since I wrote this and this Hub really needs an update! I have 2 other cats now! Thanks for stopping by! FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA. People who don't like cats don't have souls. (Can you tell I am a cat lady?) I hope Soda Pop found a new family who neutered him and gave him a new Santa hat. JS Matthew 5 years ago from Compassion Essay Massachusetts, USA.

Hello Rusti Mccollum! I love cats too! Unfortunately, Soda Pop (the white cat) took off last summer. We still have Geeko and he is quite the character! Cats are like people; they have their own personalities and in japan, no two cats are alike! Thanks for stopping by! Ruth McCollum 5 years ago from Lake Oswego, Oregon. I have 4 cats! I love their different personalities , trouble is Essay, perfectly suited for her name. JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA.

Hello thumbi7! I agree with your opinion of cats. Essay Sample! They know when we are happy and Compassion in Shattered, can tell when we are not. Often times my cat tries to cheer me up by rubbing up against me so that I will pet him. It usually works! I miss Soda Pop and I know that he will never come home.

I just pray for his safety and hope that he is happy. Thanks for stopping by and for SHARING! JR Krishna 5 years ago from India. Very beautiful. I someitmes feel cats communicate silently and pregnancy in japan, they can understand our feelings.

After reading this, I am feeling sad that Soda Pop disappeared. Thanks for SHARING this beautiful story. JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Hello Eiddwen! I do have many great memories with Soda Pop. In Shattered Essay! He was quite the little character and I hope he is happy and safe. Essay! Thank you very much for Compassion Essay, your comment! Eiddwen 5 years ago from what government have Wales. Truly beautiful and I feel for you when Soda Pop disappeared. However the wonderful memeories they leave us with are ours to keep for Compassion in Shattered Essay, sure. Thank you for sharing this beautiful hub.

JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @sterimar: I appreciate your sentiments and of Experimental Essay, am glad you understand what I am going through. Unfortunately, Soda Pop is a male and was not fixed so I think he will keep following the girls that are in heat. I do hope he is safe and always will welcome him back. Compassion! Thanks for stopping by and sharing your experience. sterimar 5 years ago from Somewhere. I left my cat and my dog there in what does the us my homeland under my parent's care and it's so painful on my departure day not to bring them but I have no choice.One day wayback when I was still there in my country,my cat at home was gone for two days and I got panic.then my father told me not to worry much for she's just in her heat -period.and gladly she's back after.

I hope one day your cat wil be back in Compassion in Shattered Essay your home and I hope too that this time he is in of Experimental Archaeology Essay good hands.I can relate your feelings on your lost precious cat. lyns 5 years ago from USA. J.S. Matthew, so true, you are welcome enjoy the little ones. JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @lyns: Cats are very picky! I do hope to get a dog someday. Compassion In Shattered Essay! I am glad you enjoyed the pictures! Thanks for all the text response essay votes and for the great comment! JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @Sunnie Day: Hello!

I can't decide between cats and Compassion, dogs so I guess I refer both! I grew up with both. I appreciate your condolences; I don't think Soda is coming home. Thanks for stopping by! I always appreciate your comments.

lyns 5 years ago from USA. Love it, (your cats are very interesting), you are so right about cats, they are so picky at times and unpredictably, watching them. the warm and kindness you have for your cats are well deserved..I hope you get the room for Essay, them, they truly will appreciate it, but I know they enjoy whatever space they have because they are loved. They are beautiful too, thanks for the pictures. I am a cat and dog person, I guess I'm an in Shattered animal lover, because they are not the only animals I admire.. thanks for sharing. Voted Awesome, Interesting Funny and Up. This was such a sweet hub and the picture is priceless..They are beautiful..I am not really a cat person but we did have two until they passed of Of Pittsburgh old age. I grew to in Shattered Essay, love them but they liked my husband better..lol. I am sorry you have lost one of them..my heart hurts for you..I am so attached to does the us have, all of our animals that each time we lost one mostly old age..it broke my heart. I hope he comes home soon.. JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Hello everyone.

I appreciate your comments very much. I am so happy that many of you have continued to follow the Compassion in Shattered Essay story and I appreciate your continued support. I don't think Soda Pop will ever come home. I hope he is happy wherever he is. In 1998! He was a great cat! Thanks again for posting. Kelly Pittman 5 years ago from Walker, LA. I'm a big animal lover as well. I hope that Soda Pop returns. When we moved into our new house here, my little cat was afraid of the new place and darted right out the door. (His name was Goose Chase!) I sure do miss him. FloraBreenRobison 5 years ago.

Oh, I'm so sorry Soda Pop hasn't come back. Hopefully he found a Safe Haven and is with another family. Kathy 5 years ago from Compassion The beautiful Napa Valley, California. Oh, I am very sad to learn that your soda pop has not, yet, returned home. Oh. sad :( so many relate to your love for your kitties. and I, too, appreciate this. Here are prayers and good thoughts for you and what of the, yours. Victoria Lynn 5 years ago from Arkansas, USA. Aw, JS, that is Compassion, so sad and sweet. I sure wish your Soda Pop would find his way home, but I know it's been a long time. What a wonderful little guy he must be. JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA.

I hope that you are happy wherever you are. I hope that you are safe and you find the one you have been looking for. I saw you looking at her through the window when she was walking through the neighbor's yard. Don't worry, I approve of was the whiskey rebellion interracial marriages. I happen to Compassion, be in that kind of what does relationship myself.

You have my blessing. Just don't be a jerk. Cherish what you love and Essay, never let what you have, become invisible. You looked happy to see her. If you ever want to come home, you are always welcome. I would like to leave the text response light on, but as you know, we go through bulbs fast and Compassion Essay, sometimes the electric goes out. I will always have food for you, except for when we run out. Fattass is in japan, waiting for you but wanted me to tell you not to Compassion, hold your breath. I don't know what that means, but I am sure that you'll figure it out.

Well good buddy, the winter is upon us and I hope that you are dry, warm and safe. If not, I hope you find your way back home or find a shelter for cats that desert their families. If you make babies, please pay Child Support and text response essay, don't leave them on our doorstep unless it is a Safe Haven authorized by Essay, the Government. What Does The Us! Check your local Police or Fire Department for more on Safe Havens. I already have a councilor in retainer.

If you want your Santa Hat back, you will have to come and get it. I paid $2.99 for that Hat and Compassion, expect repayment. Oh, and on Steel Of Pittsburgh, you owe me $8.00 in rent. I'll let all those nights with Catnip go, as long as you fix the furniture you scratched. Please respond if you find this.

JS Matthew 5 years ago from Compassion in Shattered Massachusetts, USA. Wow! Thanks for all the comments! I appreciate them all! It is Mechanics of Experimental Essay, so good to Essay, meet other animal lovers. I don't think Soda Pop is was the whiskey, coming back though. Essay! It has been a long time. I do hope he is happy! Thank you all for Mills, your great comments!

Serena Gabriel 5 years ago. Love the cat pics! I voted! I'm a cat person. Accolades to in Shattered Essay, you! Thanks for the smile. Cindy Murdoch 5 years ago from Texas. I have 3 cats and government the us, 2 dogs all indoors. They all definitely have personalities. I hope you eventually found soda pop. great hub. Great hub!

Really enjoyed reading it! I have a cat called Molly. She was a stray and in Shattered, she found me. Now we are best friends. She always brings me fun things to play with, like rats, mice, toads, etc.

She brings them in the house and likes watching me chase them around the house with a dustpan LOL. Lesleysherwood 5 years ago. I am a cat person too as you probably know from my avatar. Like you said, although cats arnt so dependent on you and google in 1998, don't follow you around the in Shattered Essay house, they do have their own personalities. Essay Mills Of Pittsburgh! Very much so. There is a great video about Compassion in Shattered Essay a cat cartoon on my facebook wall I recommend if you fancy a laugh.

Thanks for the hub J.S Matthew. My Footprints 5 years ago from MY. wow. what a tail :). I am too an animal lover. Of Experimental Archaeology Essay! both cats and dogs. Don't have either in view of space and time. But I do dog sit my neighbors. asmaiftikhar 5 years ago from Pakistan. Hi js a very true and interesting information about cats.Being a cat person i have also the Compassion same feelings about Mechanics of Experimental Archaeology Essay cats.love this keep it up and voted up! JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Wow Jo, that's a lot of cats!

I am also a dog lover just don't have the Compassion space right now. I don't think that Soda Pop is coming back. It has been a while now and it is Mills Of Pittsburgh, getting colder. I just hope that he is safe and in Shattered, comfortable. I appreciate your votes and always appreciate comments from a good friend! Jo_Goldsmith11 5 years ago. I love cats! I must because I have seven of them! and now a dog too. She is around 3 1/2 months old.

She is a big ham! Really cute hub. I hope soda pop is what have, back. I voted up! awesome, funny, and Compassion Essay, interesting. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. You're welcome MercyGrace.

And thanks for the comment! MercyGrace 6 years ago from USA. I miss cats. Government Does The Us! Reading about yours made me think of some I had. I just love how they can look at Compassion Essay, you. Thanks for a great hub. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thank you for your great comment! I always appreciate your comments because they are personal and insightful! Still no Soda Pop but waiting until the colder weather to give up hope!

Thanks so much! Anthea Kwaw 6 years ago from government does the us have United Kingdom. Hi my dear friend, I have been missing for a while. Compassion! Hopefully I can find my feet again :). I loved cats a lot when I was little. Text Essay! My paternal grandma had a lot of them. In my own home however I grew up with dogs. Growing up however I am happy to admire, but don't want to Compassion Essay, own any of them.

I however love the on Steel way you have made me feel how lucky your cats are because you do treat them as they should be treated - like animals who have feelings and deserve to be treated with kindness and respect. I do love the name Soda Pop! I think its an awesome pet name. I hope you find Soda Pop soon. I enjoyed reading this hub. Its got a warm fuzzy feel to it. Lovely.

JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks for the great comment consentino! consentino 6 years ago from Compassion in Shattered Essay GLENDALE. You sure are a cat lover. Who Founded! I like both cats and dogs. They each have their own personalities. The eyes of the cat in the photo are beautiful.

JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks Moms-Secret! I'll do that! Lissette 6 years ago from Compassion in Shattered Central Florida. You should read Happy Birthday Bad Kitty or Bad Kitty Gets a Bath. My daughter and I love them and the cat lover in you won't be able to significance, resist looking for it. LOL.

You can find them in your library. In Shattered Essay! Have fun. Msg me when you are done to let me know how you like it. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. I like dogs and cats equally. Government Have! Usually, a dog is closer to Compassion Essay, their owners. Right now I can't have a dog and one of my cats is missing.

I appreciate your comment! xXSweetiXx 6 years ago from what government does the us have The Pacific Northwest. Ha Ha! What an in Shattered Essay awesome Hub! Cats definitely have unique personalities! I've always been a cat person, they tend to was the rebellion, be more personable.

I say this, although my best friend is my dog! Thanks for sharing! JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @Nspeel: Thanks for stopping by! I'll check that Hub out Compassion now! JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA.

Thanks Angie! Since I never got Soda Pop fixed, I am thinking this may be the who founded summer of love for him! That's what I hope anyway. He was very interested in neighborhood females and he even sprayed in the house towards the in Shattered end. What Government Does! If he comes back, he is loosing his best asset! Thanks for your support and comments. Nspeel 6 years ago from Compassion in Shattered Myrtle Beach.

Jeez i cannot even find the comment box, great hub i am trying to get a bengal cat there awesome. Angie Jardine 6 years ago from Cornwall, land of the Essay on Steel Mills Of Pittsburgh eternally youthful mind . Hi JS - loved the hub! I love my old boy, The Toof, and he too is a rare character. I would be distraught if anything happened to him so I do hope your Soda Pop comes home. As he is a full tom he could just be visiting a lady friend, languishing at in Shattered Essay, her paws and letting her feed him sardines. It could just be 'lurve' . Hopefully that's all it is . JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA.

Thank you for the comment and what government have, kind words jujubees! I appreciate it. I will check out your Ode now! jujubees 6 years ago from Rhode Island. I love my cat as well. Essay! several years ago we lost our beloved Moo cat. Teen! he went out and never returned. Essay! hence my hub Ode to a Cat. we waited several years and adopted Ollie, an inside cat. adorable. I hope you find your baby. and Mechanics of Experimental, of course I enjoyed your hub. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks Fennelseed for you kind comment and support. In Shattered! It's been over a week now, I do hope he comes home.

Maybe he just went on a summer vacation? Annie Fenn 6 years ago from Australia. Hi JS, I do hope Soda Pop returns. Was The Of The! We had a cat called Boots, many years ago and Compassion, he used to go walkabout from time to time. In Japan! His longest excursion lasted about 3 weeks, but he did come home. Compassion In Shattered! Our current cat has attitude, not to mention her having eyes for Mechanics Essay, my Man. In Shattered! I think I need to take over the task of feeding her, somehow I think the tables would turn then. Loved reading your hub. Thanks for sharing your stories of your feline brood.

JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Sorry for your loss, skymaster. I have lost several pets over was the significance rebellion, the years. I know that this new cat is not a replacement for your dog, but it sure helps take the pain away a little. In Shattered Essay! Thanks for stopping by! I am a cat person too. Does Have! I just took in Essay a stray kitten a month ago,just after one of my favorite dogs died :( I love her, very delicate creatures. But no indoors for me, I have a huge garden with her,and she even gets along well with my other 5 dogs. Who Founded Google In 1998! :D. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA.

@alphagirl: That's interesting. Is your cat indoors only? If not, you will have to Compassion, protect him from the Mechanics Archaeology sun. My fat cat should get shaved; he sheds so much! His hair is in Shattered Essay, everywhere. Even in my bowl of Cheerios!

JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @Terishere: Thanks! I appreciate your support. alphagirl 6 years ago from USA. OMG! They are adorable. Who Founded! I shaved my cat to eliminate furball in my home. Essay! Its helped. Essay On Steel Mills Of Pittsburgh! My cat doesn't mind being shaved.

I can't shave the dog though! Sorry to hear that, but you never know. In Shattered! he might turn up one day. I hope he's safe and happy too. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. No, not yet.

Slowly loosing hope, but you never know! My daughter filed a report with the who founded google in 1998 local Animal Control Department, they said they haven't seen him. I just hope that he's safe and happy. maybe he eloped? Hi J.S.Matthew, I was wondering the Compassion in Shattered same thing as Davenmidtown. Everytime I see you comment to this hub, I come to see if you found Soda Pop. David Stillwell 6 years ago from Sacramento, California. So did Soda Pop return home. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Essay on Steel Mills Of Pittsburgh Massachusetts, USA. Sorry guys that it took so long to in Shattered, write back! Apparently I Unfollowed my own Hub somehow and so I never received e-mail saying that their were comments!

Duh! Thank you all for who founded google in 1998, the comments! It's great to be surrounded by so many fellow cat lovers! Thanks for reading and Compassion in Shattered, commenting! giselenmendez 6 years ago from does the us have Berlin, Germany. Loved your Hub, the best thing about having more than one cat is to being able to Compassion in Shattered Essay, follow their personalities and the way they interact. David Stillwell 6 years ago from Sacramento, California.

What a great hub. I have three Siamese mix cats; Daisy doo, Amelia Airhead, and Mamma Kitty. They were all strays who found me. I had to what rebellion, put my boy down last year. Compassion! His name was Cleo Patrick. I think my life would be very dull without cats. Government Have! We have perfectly lucid conversations anytime they need or want something.

Daisy Doo is a master Ninja. She can step on any painful pressure point and wake you up out of a dead sleep if she thinks you should know about something really important. Sandi 6 years ago from Greenfield, Wisconsin. Hmmm. so I read about the Compassion Essay cat that is anorexic. Mine happens to what was the of the rebellion, be bulemic. Really. Binges and purges.

Have changed his food. no more colors, just brown food. He seems to be purging less but he spends so much time outside he could be doing it out there. Anyway, I hope Soda Pop returns. Compassion In Shattered Essay! If so, get him fixed. Mechanics Of Experimental Archaeology Essay! They do stop spraying. Compassion In Shattered Essay! That can be annoying and teen, smells so bad, don't you think?

Thanks for the hub, JS. Victoria Lynn 6 years ago from Arkansas, USA. Thanks, JS! I'm going to keep writing! alphagirl 6 years ago from USA. I have a cat named Espresso. She is in Shattered Essay, a sweet cat. I just wrote about my adopted dog. Both animals get along. Essay On Steel! Love them both. JS Matthew 6 years ago from in Shattered Massachusetts, USA.

I checked out teen in japan your Hubs Victoria Lynn. I enjoyed them and have to Essay, say I can not choose between cats and dogs; I prefer both! I also enjoyed reading the 10 Great Ways to Cook Eggs! Keep it up! Thanks for stopping by. I appreciate your comment! Victoria Lynn 6 years ago from Arkansas, USA. I'm a cat person, too, who later fell in who founded love with a dog, and now am both a cat and in Shattered, dog person--6 cats, 1 dog.

I just wrote a hub about giving cats a chance! haha Enjoyed your hub and plan to follow you and teen, read more! JS Matthew 6 years ago from Compassion in Shattered Essay Massachusetts, USA. Thanks seanorjohn! My daughter went to the animal control which happens to be down the on Steel Mills Of Pittsburgh street. She showed them a picture and they said they haven't seen him. Essay! My daughter filed a missing cat report. Hopefully he'll turn up! Thanks for your comment.

Really hope soda pop shows up soon.Someone could have befriended him. This happens a lot in England. What Was The Significance Of The Whiskey! I still treasure the pictures of our very first cat. So it is great that you too have pictures. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. angemac23 6 years ago from Canada. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @nifty@50: I agree! Thanks for the comment.

JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @Made: Thanks for commenting! I will have to go check out your Hub about your cats! Thanks for Compassion Essay, stopping by! JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @Lucky Cats: Thanks for essay, the awesome comments and well wishes.

I really do appreciate it. Compassion Essay! Still no sign of Mechanics Archaeology Soda but keeping hopes up and Compassion in Shattered Essay, fingers crossed! Thanks again for Essay Mills Of Pittsburgh, your comment. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @annmackiemiller: Thanks for stopping by! I appreciate the vote and stuff!

Cats Rule! At least in my house. Great hub! Madeleine Salin 6 years ago from Finland. I love cats! This is a great hub! I've written a hub about my cats too. Essay! One of my cats behaves like a dog. He follows me all the time and response essay sample, tries to get my attention. Compassion Essay! None of my cats are lap cats either. Kathy 6 years ago from The beautiful Napa Valley, California.

JS Matthew. I love this hub! You know I do! I sure hope that Soda Pop returns. those kitties; know how to break hearts. Teen! I told you before and I repeat; any man who feels as you do for cats is a fabulous person and puuurrrfectly A-OK!! with me.

My kitties find space on the tile and on glass top tables as these surfaces hold coolness and they sprawl out Essay like flattened pancakes! Yes, dear J.S. get Soda Pop neutered..take the 'fizz' out of his activities! Hopefully, when he returns (WHEN. ) this act of kindness will cause him to pregnancy, wander less, relax a little more, and spray a lot less. All positive buttons up and UP! annmackiemiller 6 years ago from Compassion Essay Bingley Yorkshire England. yeh! I'm a cat person too. What The Us! voted up and Compassion in Shattered, stuff. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Congratulations on your Grand Litter! Kudos to you and your family.

Thanks for stopping by Icbenefield! lcbenefield 6 years ago from Georgia. Cute hub that made me smile. Text Response Essay! We currently have two dogs and a cat that just had a litter three days ago. My grandkittens are so precious. I am absolutely crazy about them and can't wait to watch them grow. The momma is Compassion in Shattered Essay, so proud of her accomplishment.

The dogs are curious but respectful. JS Matthew 6 years ago from who founded Massachusetts, USA. Thanks Chanroth! I appreciate your comment very, very much! chanroth 6 years ago from California, USA. I love cats! And I enjoy this hub very big big much!

Vote up, up and up! lol. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks guys for all the Compassion support and advice. I might call a shelter in a day or so to see if they have picked him up. Thank God I have pictures of him! I have had cats all my life and have lost some and some do come back. I'll post here if and when he comes home. Thanks again for your comments. Linda Crampton 6 years ago from British Columbia, Canada. I hope that Soda Pop returns. I would be very upset if any of my three cats got out.

I enjoyed your hub and in japan, the photos. I love cats, and dogs too. Good luck with finding Soda Pop. Binaya.Ghimire 6 years ago. I read couple of Compassion hubs on Archaeology Essay, cats today. Evey hubs are interesting in in Shattered Essay their own way. Though I do not own a cat, I think the they are graceful animals.

I know this because my mother is quite inseparable with cats. B. A. Williams 6 years ago from USA. So sorry to hear, have you alerted the shelters and made signs to hang around where you live? There are hotlines too I believe a friend lost his dog and got an teen immediate response. FloraBreenRobison 6 years ago. I would be frantic. But as TErishere says, cats have been known to return home afte a long period. I hope Soda Pop comes home ASAP. I hope Soda Pop comes home soon. I'm sorry to hear that.

I had a cat which was gone for months. I never thought I'd see him again. But lo and behold, a few months later he showed up. I hope Soda Pop returns home soon. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks xiatianle! Unfortunately, Soda Pop got out in Shattered a few days ago but never came home.

I hope he comes home soon! ;( xiatianle 6 years ago from canada. your cat is really lovely! JS Matthew 6 years ago from Archaeology Essay Massachusetts, USA. That tends to be the nature of Compassion Essay cats; even if meant to be temporary, they always become part of the family! I am glad that you enjoyed the Mills photos. All I can do is laugh when I see them, those crazy characters! I definitely want to Essay, neuter Soda-Pop soon!

He is getting out of who founded in 1998 hand meowing and spraying. I didn't know that cat's could have seizures. I hope everything works out right. Compassion In Shattered! Thanks for the comment! B. A. Teen In Japan! Williams 6 years ago from USA. Love cats just like you, and have a brother and Compassion Essay, sister who were feral. Of Experimental! We intended on just taming and socializing them to Compassion in Shattered Essay, people but they became part of the family. Your pictures were great I may add my cats to my site. You might want to neuter your male it really isn't serious surgery anymore mine was in and out the on Steel Mills same day and in Shattered Essay, is fine.

In fact when he came home I called the vet since I seen he still has testicles, and was told they just leave them for esthetic looks, too funny I felt foolish for google in 1998, calling. Spraying is a pain and harbors bacteria for the kitties and you. My cats are funny they love the sun BUT love the Essay air conditioner on too, but they are pure black which might be why they like the AC. Unfortunately I found when they were 3 months old they have a genetic form of epilepsy. The female is worse and takes meds daily, but the male has a couple seizures a year. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. It's pretty hot here right now and my cats like the wood and linoleum floors to stay cool. They always have water and the Air Conditioner is an option, although they rarely choose that. Thanks for commenting!

saddlerider1 6 years ago. It is so hot here right now in teen pregnancy my city that my furry feline is trying to find a cool spot on Compassion in Shattered, my hardwood floors to keep cool. I ensure her bowl is does the us have, filled constantly with water, we are in a heat wave here on the Canadian Prairies and not only the humans are feeling the heat but our four legged adorable cats, dogs and Compassion in Shattered Essay, other pets are feeling the was the whiskey rebellion heat. I know when I turn my fan in her direction she gives me a great big grin..he he. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Compassion in Shattered Massachusetts, USA. Wow, that cat has some talents! My cats just meow when they want attention. Text Response Essay! They really are family members. Geeko isn't very vocal and Compassion in Shattered, is very shy but he loves to be pet but wont ever let you pick him up. On some occasions he has sat above my head on the top of the couch, but even that is rare.

Soda Pop is very talkative, sometimes you wish he'd be quiet! They are both priceless to me. Mechanics Archaeology! They are fun and I love them! Thanks for the comment Bud Gallant! Bud Gallant 6 years ago from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. I can really relate to Compassion, this. I'm a cat person, as well. Essay! I'm sometimes surprised just how much genuine love I have for Essay, my Siamese, and was the rebellion, she is so expressive and Compassion in Shattered, amazing to me. She loves to play fetch and what was the of the rebellion, she communicates with her paws by tapping people on the nose gently when she wants to Compassion Essay, be put down. The odd time she will tolerate being held, but she likes it in small doses.

She does come when she's called most of the what does the us have time, too, which I used to think was impossible for cats. They really are amazing creatures. It's something I don't think people can really understand until they forge a relationship with a pet. Compassion Essay! I never would have imagined I would end up so crazy about a cat! I really enjoyed this hub. I can't believe they pulled a bait-and-switch on you guys like that, though! Still, I'm sure Soda Pop was worth any price.

JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks you Flora! I agree that charging people will filter out potentially bad owners. Thanks for stopping by and leaving your comment! FloraBreenRobison 6 years ago. Any article entitled I love Cats is something I must read. :) Geeko and Soda Pop. :) That reminds me of other cats at the shelter where I adopted Amy-two of them-yes two-were named Pepsi.I wonder if the neighbours sold the cats to make sure whoever bought them was serious about raising them and not just in significance love with the kittens' beauty. Charging people will sometimes weed out irresponsible people. Great pictures! JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Smart is Good, that stinks that you couldn't keep the in Shattered Essay kitten, but it's awesome that you made sure it was safe.

I appreciate your comment. Essay On Steel Of Pittsburgh! Thanks for stopping by! Smart is Good 6 years ago from Lima, Peru. I used to not like cats, until I found a stray kitten. Compassion Essay! It had been abandoned on a park and I just couldn't leave him there since it's winter and text response, it was raining that day. I took him home and I fell in love with it, I cuddled at night with the Compassion Essay tiny guy and I played with him.

Sadly I couldn't keep him because I own two dogs already and a hamster, all of us living in a very small space; but I found him a great home and I'm happy for him. Although cats are more independent from us humans; I'd still love to have one in pregnancy in japan the future. Animals are nature's blessing and they're filled with beauty. Your cats are amazing, I hope you keep sharing your life with them for in Shattered, a long time in the future. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks froch!

The fat cat has a very funny personality. He's a bit shy and like to run and hide! Thanks for the comment! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and teen pregnancy, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Compassion! HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and Essay on Steel Of Pittsburgh, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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Activity Based Costing and ABC Management. Definitions, Example Calculations, Meaning Explained. Compassion In Shattered? Updated 2017-10-06 2017 Solution Matrix Ltd. Companies move to activity based costing to sample better understand the true costs of goods and services. Activity based costing attempts to measure the in Shattered Essay costs of products and services more accurately than traditional cost accounting. Activity based costing ABC is a method for assigning costs to products, services projects, tasks, or acquisitions, based on. Activities that go into them. Resources consumed by these activities. ABC contrasts with traditional costing (cost accounting), which sometimes assigns costs using somewhat arbitrary allocation percentages for overhead or the so-called indirect costs. As a result, ABC and in 1998 traditional cost accounting can estimate cost of goods sold and gross margin very differently for individual products.

Contradictory and uncertain cost estimates can be a problem when management needs to know exactly which products are profitable and Compassion which are selling at significance of the whiskey rebellion, a loss. Cost accountants know that traditional cost accounting can hide or distort information on the costs of individual products and servicesespecially where local cost allocation rules misrepresent actual resource usage. As a result, the move to ABC is Essay, usually driven by a need to understand the true costs of individual products and services more accurately. Companies implement activity based costing in order to: Identify individual products that are unprofitable. Improve production process efficiency. Price products appropriately, with the of the whiskey rebellion help of accurate product cost information. Reveal unnecessary costs that can be eliminated. Firms that use ABC consistently to pursue these objectives are practicing activity based management ABM . Compassion Essay? ABC Impacts the Same Accounts, But With Different Mathematics. Note that the purpose of ABC is to provide information for decision support and planning. ABC by itself usually has little or no impact on the structure of the firm's financial accounting reports (Income statement, Balance sheet, or Cash flow statement).

This is because both ABC and was the significance of the traditional costing ultimately assign costs to the same existing accounts. The two approaches simply use different mathematics to do so. Essay? Note especially, however, that ABC sometimes brings improvements in reported margins and profitability. These outcomes follow when ABC reveals unnecessary or inflated costs, or when ABC shows where to adjust pricing models, work flow process, or the product mix. Explaining Activity Based Costing in Context.

This article further defines, explains, and illustrates activity based costing using example calculations to contrast ABC with traditional cost accounting. Examples appear in context with related terms from the fields of budgeting, cost accounting, and financial accounting. For the accountant's role in teen in japan, costing, see the Essay article Accountant. Archaeology Essay? The article Cost Object defines and explains the term cost object. The article Direct and Indirect Labor Costs further explains the role of in Shattered Essay, these terms in response, traditional cost accounting.

Why Do Companies and Organizations Use. Activity Based Costing? Business people are moved to adopt ABC by a desire to improve costing accuracy, especially to Essay get closer to response essay sample the true cost and true profitability of individual products and services. And, they also move to ABC in order to Compassion in Shattered Essay understand better the true costs and return on investment from projects, programs, or other initiatives. ABC pursues these objectives essentially by making direct costs out of many costs that traditional cost accounting treats as indirect costs . Examples below show how this is done. Organizations that use ABC consistently and effectively are said to practice activity based management ( ABM).

Here, management turns to ABC to support decisions about pricing, adding or deleting items from the was the significance whiskey product portfolio, choosing between outsourcing and in-house production, and evaluating process improvement initiatives. For more on ABM, see the section below What is Compassion in Shattered, activity based management? The percentage of organizations currently using activity based costing varies greatly from industry to industry. Various surveys in the period 2012-2017 report the highest percentage of firms using ABC in manufacturing (20%-50%), followed by financial services (15-25%), public sector (12-18%), and communications (6-12%). Comparing Activity Based Costing to Traditional Cost Accounting. Text Essay? The different approaches and outcomes from ABC and traditional costing are easiest to illustrate in the context of a product manufacturing example.

However, the principles shown here extend readily to a wide range of Essay, other business settings. Example: Traditional Cost Accounting vs. ABC. For example, consider a firm that manufactures automobile parts through a sequence of machine operations on metal stock. In such settings, traditional accounting views product production costs as either direct costs or indirect costs (or overhead). Traditionally, direct costs for such firms are costs they can assign to who founded specific product units. In product manufacturing, these might include direct materials and direct labor costs: These can include the cost for person minutes or person hours per product unit for running production machines. Direct materials. Example Sources of Indirect Costs. T raditionally, indirect costs for Compassion in Shattered such firms are manufacturing overhead costs they cannot assign directly to Mills Of Pittsburgh specific product units.

Instead, they allocate these costs to specific production runs, batches, or time periods. These might include indirect costs such as the following: Firms typically do not order materials for each product unit, but rather, for entire batch runs. They may also order supply materials to cover a specific time period. Machine set up costs . Manufacturing firms do not set up production machines for each product unit. They are set up instead for the production run of each product model. Product packaging costs . Manufacturers can sometimes package multiple product units in in Shattered Essay, a single package. And, they may fill multiple packages in a single packaging run. Machine testing and calibration costs . Manufacturing firms perform these operations regularly and often, but not for each individual product unit.

Machine maintenance and Archaeology Essay cleaning costs . Firms normally perform these operations only after producing multiple product units. For this example, consider a firm that manufactures and in Shattered sells two product models, Model A and pregnancy in japan Model B. Some aspects of Essay, A and Mills Of Pittsburgh B compare as shown in Table 1: Direct Costs Are the Same in traditional and Activity Based costing. Compassion In Shattered? Management must estimate the profitability of Essay Mills, each product in order to decide which products to produce and sell and how to price them. This, in turn, requires an understanding of the full cost per unit of Compassion, each product. While the who founded google direct costs per unit may be found, easily, the indirect costs are less obvious. As a result, the firm will have to uncover product indirect costs through a costing methodology#8212;either traditional cost allocation or activity based costing. Direct costs are the Essay same under both traditional costing and ABC. For direct costs, accountants measure a cost per teen in japan, product unit for each direct cost category.

The two costing methods differ, however, in the way they assign indirect costs to Compassion in Shattered Essay products. Consequently, the two costing approaches sometimes give quite different pictures of the profitability of individual products. In one accounting period the firm produces and sells 900,000 units of product A at $3.00 each and 2,100,000 units of product B at $2.00 each. Traditional Costing: Finding Direct Costs. Table 2 below shows the resulting revenues and direct costs for these sales. Does Have? Traditional Costing: Finding Indirect or Overhead Costs. The company's cost accountants will also find cost totals for the period's production support activities. In traditional cost accounting, these are called overhead or indirect costs, as shown in Compassion Essay, Table 3 below. Traditional Cost Accounting: Calculating Direct and Indirect Costs. The simple form of who founded in 1998, traditional cost accounting appearing here uses only the total indirect cost line from Table 3. Traditionally, firms allocate this cost total to each product, A or B, based on proportional usage of a given resource. The resource chosen for this purpose is usually one of the direct cost items.

Note especially that this approach is also called production volume based (PVB) cost allocation, for obvious reasons. Under PVB cost allocation, the total indirect cost could be allocated to Products A and B based on factors such as the proportion of total. Production machine time used by each product. Direct labor costs used by each product. Factory floor space used by each product. Other factors may also apply. For this example, the firm's accountants chose to allocate indirect costs referring to direct labor costs.

The indirect cost total from Table 3 above is $1,422,500. The direct labor total (line 6 from Table 1) is $1,500,000. Compassion? From these figures, the firm allocates indirect labor cost to each product as a percentage of the teen pregnancy product's own direct labor cost: Indirect labor cost / direct labor cost proportion: = 0.948 = 94.8% For product A, Direct labor costs are $450,00 (Table 2, line 6). The indirect cost allocation for A is therefore 94.8% of this, or $426,750. In Shattered? For product B, Direct labor costs are $1,050,000 (Table 2, line 6). The indirect cost allocation for in 1998 B is Compassion Essay, therefore 94.8% of this, or $995,750. Traditional Costing: Allocating Indirect Costs. Of Experimental? Table 4, below, shows how this allocation produces indirect cost estimates per unit. And, the table also shows the traditional costing solutions for gross profit and gross margin for each product unit. [allocation shown above] traditional cost accounting approaches for indirect costs.

Conclusions: Traditional Cost Allocation (Product Volume Based Allocation) Example: Estimated Indirect cost per unit is the same for both products, $0.47 (Table 4, line 14). This must be the case, because indirect costs for Compassion in Shattered Essay both products use the same allocation rate ( 94.8%) applied to direct labor costs, based on the same direct labor rate ($0.50 / unit). On a per have, unit basis, this traditional costing finds Product A more profitable than product B: The gross margin rate of 42.5% for A compares with a gross margin of 26.3% for B. Explaining Activity Based Costing. This section presents an ABC version of the Essay same product costing situation.

The example shows how ABC and traditional costing can yield different indirect cost estimates for who founded in 1998 the same products. And, this means the two approaches can also estimate profitability differently. Finally, especially, however, that the example also shows clearly that ABC requires more data and more detailed analysis than the PVB allocation approach. ABC costing for Compassion products A and B begins with the same summary table used for the traditional costing example above. Government? Data for starting the analysis includes units produced and sold, sales revenues, and direct costs. Compassion? The ABC example therefore begins with another copy of Table 2: Overhead or Indirect Costs Under Activity Based Costing.

In ABC, the indirect or overhead cost contributors are viewed as activity pools. Mechanics Of Experimental Archaeology Essay? Under activity based costing, an activity pool is the set of all activities required to complete a task, such as (a) process purchase orders, or (2) perform machine set ups. In order to cost activity pools, ABC identifies activity units that are cost drivers for Compassion each pool. The total cost of for Archaeology the activity pool process purchase orders, for instance, is driven by Compassion Essay, the number of purchase orders processed, while the total cost for activity pool perform machine set ups is driven by the number of set ups. Tables 5A and 5B, below show a cost driver (CD) unit cost for each activity pool: one machine set up, for significance rebellion instance, is found to require $1,500 in in Shattered Essay, labor, materials, energy, and other resources. Text? Table 5A, moreover, shows the Essay number of CD units (activity units) used for product A, while Table 5B shows these figures for product B. Essay Sample? From the known cost of each CD unit, a total cost can be assigned for each product for each activity pool, as the Compassion rightmost columns of Tables 5A and 5B show. In ABC, assigning cost totals to response activity pools in this way, using cost driver units, is stage-1 allocation , or batch-level allocation . Essay? Product A activity units, activity pools, and cost drivers. Product B activity units, activity pools, and cost drivers. Table 5B . ABC Stage-1 allocation (batch level allocation) for Product B: Activity pools, cost drivers, cost per cost driver unit, and total cost for these activities.

When each product's activity pool cost totals are known, the analysts can then calculate the cost per product unit, as Table 5C shows. To find product unit costs, the teen in japan analyst divides the activity pool cost totals by the number of product units. In ABC, the process of finding product unit costs is stage-2 allocation , or product level allocation . In Shattered Essay? Stage 2 allocation in ABC: Allocating activity pools to what was the significance of the product units. The total product unit costs for each product correspond to the total indirect costs for Compassion in Shattered Essay each product from the text essay traditional costing approach. Finding Overhead Costs Per Unit in ABC. Table 6 below shows how these costs contribute to Compassion in Shattered the new version of profitability calculations for each product. Was The Of The? sold [Table 2, line 1] [Table 5C, line 21 ] Conclusions: Activity Based Costing Example . Estimated Indirect (overhead) cost per unit is quite different for each product, unlike the traditional costing example above where indirect costs per unit were the same for both products. This approach recognizes that product A uses more activity pool resources than product B. In Shattered Essay? On a per teen in japan, unit basis, ABC finds product B more profitable than product A. In Shattered? The gross margin rate of 36.8% for B compares with a gross margin of what government, 26.1% for A. ABC and Compassion in Shattered Essay Traditional Costing Compared. Advantages and Disadvantages.

Comparing Costing Results from Two Approaches. Table 7 below shows the per-unit profitability estimates for each product from the does the us have examples above. Product Profitability (Gross Profit Margin) (Production volume based allocation) Key Differences Between Costing Methods. The tables and examples above illustrate some key differences between the costing methods: Activity based costing requires detailed knowledge of the Compassion in Shattered Essay activities and resources that go into overhead (or indirect) support work. Traditional cost accounting (production volume based allocation) requires only a total overhead cost and what was the significance of the whiskey rebellion a simple allocation rule. Overhead Components and Products: Differentiation vs.

Aggregation. ABC recognizes that individual overhead components can be distributed differently for different products. One product may consume relatively more maintenance resources, for instance, while another product may consume relatively less maintenance resources but relatively more machine set up resources. Traditional cost accounting typically puts overhead components into fewer categories, or even a single category, and Compassion in Shattered uses a single allocation rate for all products. Activity based costing treats overhead costs essentially as direct costs, in that cost estimates reflect actual cost driver usage for each product. Text Response? These costs, in Compassion in Shattered Essay, turn can be reasonably be apportioned to individual product units. In traditional cost accounting (production volume based allocation), the total overhead cost is known accurately.

However, in traditional costing the distribution of that total to individual products is based on an indirect measure of that cost. Costing Accuracy vs. the Cost of Costing. For the text response essay sample profitability figures shown in Table 7 above, the activity based costing results may be taken as the Compassion in Shattered Essay more accurate results#8212;more closely reflecting the true production costs of products A and Essay B#8212;than the profitability figures from the traditional costing approach. Whether or not the in Shattered Essay improved accuracy justifies the higher cost of applying this costing method, however, is a question management will have to investigate and answer before committing to a comprehensive new approach to costing. Note especially that the purpose of ABC is to what government does provide management with information for decision support and planning. Compassion In Shattered? Organizations that use ABC consistently, to response essay pursue costing accuracy, are practicing activity based management ABM . ABC first appeared in the mid 1980s. Compassion In Shattered Essay? Since that time, the google percentage of companies and Compassion in Shattered Essay other organizations using the essay sample approach has increased more or less continuously.

However, as mentioned, nearly four decades after it first appeared, the in Shattered majority of companies and organizations still do not use activity based costing, and do not practice activity based management. Implementing Activity Based Management ABM. Regarding implementation, activity based costing requires detailed and complete information on specific activities that go into specific products, services, and tasks, as well as detailed and of Experimental Archaeology complete information on in Shattered Essay the resources consumed by these activities(including time, labor, and other goods and services). Implementation in large, complex organizations is text essay sample, therefore a labor-intensive and data-intensive undertaking. Since the mid 1980s, however, ABC has become more accessible and more affordable to many companies through two ongoing trends. Firstly, recent improvements in costing software. Secondly, the Compassion increasing availability of data from sample complex, comprehensive software systems, such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, manufacturing resource planning (MRP) systems, and Compassion Essay customer relationship management (CRM) systems. When first introduced, the of Experimental obvious benefits of ABC were most readily seen in product manufacturing settings, as the two numerical examples above show.

From the start, it was clear that in such settings, the ABC is Compassion, superior to traditional cost accounting for the purposes of: Identifying truly profitable and truly unprofitable products. Finding and eliminating unnecessary costs. Identifying and distinguishing between true value-add activities and non-value add activities. Pricing products so as to on Steel Of Pittsburgh achieve acceptable margins. Activity based management: Moving beyond manufacturing. Increasingly, however, the in Shattered Essay value of of Experimental Archaeology, more accurate costing has become more widely appreciated, leading to the application of this methodology for the purposes of: Organizations can anticipate overhead costs and funding needs with greater accuracy and more certainty under ABC. Human capital management . Firms can now direct human resources into more profitable activities under ABC. Performance measurement . Managers can evaluate the Essay performance of individuals, groups, projects, initiatives, and programs, with more certainty and accuracy when their true costs are better understood through ABC. Master Case Builder Shop. Who Founded Google In 1998? The premier business case books and toolsproven practical guidance for Compassion Essay all stages of your case building project.

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essay on Compassion in Shattered Essay ethic Credit where credit is due: this information was found at http://www.angelfire.com/ma/Malificent/PR.html , the work of a PR student building a website) Ethics in the Field of Public Relations. This essay was the product of government the us, Writing Studio 209, a course focusing on rhetoric. However, my interest in the topic was piqued during the prior semester.

My p.r. professor delivered a lecture on in Shattered Essay ethics in the field of public relations; it was this oxymoron that enticed me into researching and proposing a solution to negative connotation that often plagues public relations practitioners. Contemporary public relations is a twentieth-century phenomenon that evolved from the press gentry of the significance of the rebellion 1800s. These old-time press agents played upon Essay the credulity of the public in its desire to be entertained, whether or not they were deceived. Advertisements and press releases were often exaggerated to the point of being complete falsifications. In promoting an attraction, press agents dropped multitudes of tickets on the newspaper editors desk along with the releases.

Voluminous publicity for the attraction usually resulted, and reporters, editors, and their families flocked to the free entertainment with scant regard for what government does the us, any ethical constraints (Wilcox, Ault, Agee 37). One man, Phineas T. Barnum, exemplified such a press agent to the extreme. Barnum is considered the master of the pseudoevent, the Essay planned event that occurs primarily for the purpose of Mechanics of Experimental Archaeology, being reportedsimilar to the special events held by public relations practitioners of today. However, modern-day practitioners like to Compassion, draw the line of comparison between Barnum and themselves at this point. This hardheaded businessman used deception and hoax in his operations and in his publicity and advertising. Nevertheless, a public thirsting for entertainment permitted his exaggerations and people were amazed by the wonders he produced (Wilcox, Ault, Agee 38).

For example, Joice Heath was a slave who claimed to be 161 years old and said she had been George Washingtons nurse. Barnum produced a stained birth certificate as evidence for pregnancy, the public, but after she died, her autopsy disclosed that she was far younger. On the same note, Jumbo, the Compassion Essay worlds largest elephant, was brought by Barnum from England with enormous publicity. Posters and pamphlets featuring inflated prose exaggerated the animals size (Wilcox, Ault, Agee 38). Roots such as these have created the skepticism with which the what was the significance public views the field of public relations.

Furthermore, it is the duty of practitioners to create positive images for businesses and organizations. Therefore, other, more recent issues have augmented Americans mistrust in the business world in Compassion Essay general, including the Watergate Affair and the business-and-government-related scandals of the Mechanics Essay 1980s, such as the near collapse of the Compassion in Shattered savings and loan industry. The American public is demanding higher ethical practices from business firms and was the whiskey rebellion organizations than it did in the past (Wilcox, Ault, Agee 116). How Public Relations Practitioners are Perceived. Despite pressure from the public, very little empirical evidence on the ethics of public relations practitioners exists. As recently as the spring of 1988, a Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) task force could only uncover 16 journal articles and two books as initial readings that dealt with ethics issues in Compassion in Shattered Essay length (Pratt, Empirical 230). However, one study conducted in 1989, has revealed the Mechanics of Experimental Essay pathetic state of ethics in, and has called into question the Compassion in Shattered Essay credibility, professional integrity and Mechanics public image of, public relations (229). In the broad field of Compassion, mass communications, of which public relations practitioners are considered a part, the occupation is viewed with cynicism.

For example, an investigation of journalists attitudes toward public relations, conducted in who founded google 1975, disclosed generally negative attitudes. In this sample survey, respondents had to rank the perceived respect of 16 occupations and professions; journalists ranked themselves first and public relations practitioners last, while public relations practitioners ranked themselves fourth and journalists third. It has also been reported that college students develop a negative disposition toward public relations early on in their college careers. This disposition could be caused by the content of textbooks. In a content analysis of 12 introductory textbooks in mass communications, an insidious bias against public relations and a fierce anti-public relations stance was found (229). Even public relations practitioners have doubts about the degree of morality in Compassion in Shattered Essay the field.

In a recent survey of teen in japan, practitioners, none of the respondents assigned very high marks to Essay, the honesty and ethical standards of their colleagues. Fifty-five percent of them viewed the chief executive as the most credible source of information about an organization, and the us only five percent selected a public relations representative (Pratt, Empirical, 230). Ironically, practitioners themselves hold little credence in the ability of Compassion in Shattered Essay, their peers to carry out an Mechanics Archaeology essential component of their profession: the management of an organizations relationships with its various publics. Often times, the management of Essay, these relationships is teen pregnancy in japan, jeopardized by poor decision-making on the part of practitioners. Wilcox (119) offers specific examples of the judgment calls with which public relations practitioners are faced. For instance, if the company president asks a public relations representative to write a news release claiming that a new product is in Shattered, four times better than the competition, he/she should be wary. Making extravagant claims about a product, which cannot be substantiated, should be avoided. Another example could be an American company that wants to increase its visibility and market share in Eastern Europe. The director of public relations invites a group of on Steel, German business editors to Compassion in Shattered, visit the firms headquarters with all expenses paid. This is who founded, considered permissible by the whole body of practitioners, as long as the visit has legitimate news value, and as long as it furthers the press understanding of the companys operations.

A primary judgment call happens during the job search of a public relations practitioner. Compassion Essay. To illustrate, if a tobacco company offers someone the highest salary from among his/her potential employers, he/she should not oppose smoking. Essay On Steel. This could place the person in in Shattered a position where personal interest is in conflict with an employer or client, and fulfilling obligations to the employer would be difficult. Dilemmas such as these must be addressed by practitioners everyday. Response Sample. One might glance at these examples and wonder were the difficulty in making these decisions lies. The fact is that not everybody holds the same set of personal and/or professional standards.

One person might not see anything wrong with exaggerating a news release for in Shattered Essay, a new product, while another might consider such an act to be dishonest. Studies have been done which categorize public relations practitioners as being either more ethical or less ethical; the factors that have been researched and that provided conclusive evidence include age, years of was the significance whiskey, experience, gender, and individual moral values. The older and the more years of experience, the more ethical the practitioner. Similarly, the higher ones individual moral values are, the more ethical ones professional standard will be (Shamir, Reed, Connell 956-953). Female practitioners beliefs were significantly more ethical than those of their male counterparts.

It was also reported that women practiced unethical behavior less often than men (Pratt, Perceptions, 153). In addition to incongruous ethical standards, several other factors serve as possible reasons for the lack of values. A number of practitioners said that because of the competitive environment in which practitioners tend to work, ethics may have low priority (Pratt, Empirical 232). Also, some practitioners blame the availability, or lack thereof, of good, effective role models, particularly among top business executives, for both practitioners and Compassion in Shattered Essay society in general. In a nationwide study of U.S. Was The Significance Of The Rebellion. business ethics conducted by Brenner and Molander, respondents reported that the behavior of Compassion, ones superiors was a primary influence on the making of unethical decisions (Pratt, Empirical, 233). Proposed Solutions to the Ethical Dilemma.

The only text response sample way for public relations practitioners to rid themselves of this unethical behavior is to come up with plausible solutions. Public relations practitioners surveyed proposed several suggestions, varying in degrees of in Shattered Essay, severity. Essay Sample. First, some respondents said that because ethics in in Shattered public relations is a reflection of a general decline in values,overall ethics in society should be improved by instilling moral values in the home (Pratt,Empirical, 232). This, however, would be a difficult task in todays society, due to what government does the us, the deterioration of stable homes. It would be a long-term undertaking, and the results would not be seen for Compassion in Shattered, years.

Furthermore, this solution could not be taken on solely by public relations practitioners; rather, all of society would have to be willing to in japan, pursue greater ethics in each and every household. Another proposed solution deals with education. Compassion In Shattered. Practitioners believe that stronger exploration of ethics issues in high school and college curricula, more ethics awareness among upper management, and better clarification on what is or is not acceptable behavior would solve the problem (231). After completing a media ethics course, mass communications students displayed an increase in the importance they placed on moral and social issues, an increase their awareness of such issues, and shifts in their value system to approximate more closely the value system affording the Mechanics of Experimental Archaeology greatest level of ethical self-esteem (232). Compassion Essay. Thus, similar results could be achieved if current practitioners were involved in a continuing education program that offered courses in google ethics. However, I believe that the in Shattered Essay positive results of such courses would be like temporary exposure to sun: At first you have a beautiful, bronze tan, but after awhile that tan fades; initially, the practitioners would place more emphasis on moral issues, but, like the tan, that emphasis will fade. Another recommendation is to place more emphasis on personal professionalism. Practitioners suggested that, if employers hire honest people, it may help change the image of practitioners from that of Essay on Steel, incompetent, shoddy opportunists. In Shattered Essay. They also suggested practitioners need to look at their responsibilities as much more than just jobs but as a way of life, and that practitioners should be well-trained in public relations. Striving toward full professionalization could improve professional ethics (Pratt, Empirical 232). Mechanics Of Experimental Archaeology Essay. In addition, specifying exactly what constitutes public relations would clear up any misperceptions on the part of practitioners.

Other ideas include rewarding and publicizing good conduct, developing a universally-honored code of ethics, and governmentally regulating the licensing of public relations practitioners. Of all the Compassion Essay solutions suggested, from increasing household values to hiring honest people, the of Experimental two proposals that have been taken the most seriously by practitioners are the development of a code and the licensing of Compassion Essay, practitioners. The following reasoning has led to Archaeology, their earnest contemplation: How could public relations survive as a profession, if as many of its practitioners as are believed to in Shattered Essay, be guilty of unethical behavior were actually guilty? Wouldnt many of the college students choosing to major in this field change their minds? After all, who would want to number him/herself among such cheats? It is quite possible that the field of public relations is not as corrupt as people make it seem. The majority of ethical practitioners could be taking the who founded bad rap for in Shattered, the minority of those who are unethical.

However, popular beliefs will prevail. The only way for practitioners to free themselves of this stereotype is to take action against the few that ruin it for the many. What Government Does. In an Compassion in Shattered Essay attempt to do that, some public relations practitioners support licensing and consider it to be the only solution. Proposals to take the text response essay control of ethical decision-making out of the hands of practitioners and to put it into the hands of the state had been discussed even before the PRSA was founded. Edward L. Bernays, a proponent of licensing who played an Compassion in Shattered indispensable role in formulating the modern concept of public relations, believes that licensing would protect the profession and the public from charlatans who do not have the knowledge, talent, or ethics required (Wilcox, Ault Agee 129). What Significance Rebellion. The problem is stated by a PRSA task force on demonstrating professionalism: Pick up any metropolitan newspaper and scan the employment ads. Under the public relations classification, you are likely to find opportunities for door-to-door salespersons, receptionists, used-car salespeople, singles bar hostesses and others of less savory reputation.

The front pages of the newspapers are full of stories about former government employees peddling influence and calling it public relations. (Wilcox 129) If public relations practitioners had to obtain a license in order to practice, those who did not meet a certain set of qualifications would have to in Shattered Essay, refer to themselves as something other than public relations counselors. Government Does The Us Have. The qualifications could resemble those of Essay, a doctor or lawyer, such that a practitioner would have to pass a certain level of education, rigid examinations, and tests of personal integrity. Other designations adopted by those who failed to meet the on Steel Of Pittsburgh standards could be publicist or press agent. Several arguments have been offered, both for in Shattered, and against, mandatory licensing and regulation by the state. (Wilcox, Ault, Agee 129). First, proponents say that licensing would define the practice of of Experimental Archaeology, public relations, while opponents contend that it is too difficult to define public relations rigidly enough to legally regulate its practice. Second, both those for and against agree that licensing would set uniform ethical standards. In Shattered Essay. However, licensing does not assure high ethical behavior. The credibility and status of an occupation are not necessarily guaranteed through licensing.

Attorneys, for Mechanics of Experimental Archaeology, instance, do not particularly enjoy high public status and prestige because they are licensed. Nor do licensed practical nurses. In Shattered. Third, many believe licensing would protect the consumer of public relations services (clients and employers) from the impostors and Essay on Steel the inept. Compassion. Opponents point out that civil and criminal laws already exist to in japan, deal with malpractice, or the impostors. Proponents claim that since licensing would not control anyones right to deal with the media, government, or public, or to speak out in in Shattered Essay any way, no infringement of First Amendment rights would be involved. Teen Pregnancy In Japan. However, opponents believe that any licensing in the communications field is an infringement on the First Amendment, as the government could actually control practitioners. Finally, those for licensing state that it would establish uniform educational curricula. Those opposed conclude that too much emphasis would then be placed on education. In addition to these contentions, opponents offer further justification for Compassion in Shattered Essay, their opinion. They think that voluntarily adhering to the professional organizations code would be sufficient to establish standards. Mechanics. The codes to in Shattered Essay, which they are referring are those created by professional associations, such as the PRSA, the International Association of on Steel Of Pittsburgh, Business Communicators (IABC), and the Society of Compassion in Shattered Essay, Professional Journalists (SPJ).

Members of these organizations are expected to follow these sets of standards. Next, licensing would be a states function, and public relations people often work on text response a national and international basis. Furthermore, the Compassion in Shattered machinery required for the government to sample, license and Compassion Essay police all public relations practitioners in Of Pittsburgh this country would be elaborate and very costly to Compassion Essay, the American taxpayer. In a final argument, proponents reason that, if medical doctors have defined themselves and teen in japan have accepted a different paradigm of professionalism than have chiropractors and faith healers, then practitioners, in accordance with the state, can define and protect this definition of public relations (Kruckeberg 23). Essay. Opponents claim that legislators show little or no interest in what government the us licensing public relations, since the health and welfare of the general public are not directly at stake.

In addition, this analogy of comparing public relations professionals to Essay, medical doctors is inappropriate. Google In 1998. This is because of the First Amendment-type rights which prohibit the exclusion of others to the performance of most types of public relations activities. Essay. Public relations is considered part of the mass communications field, and practitioners do not feel that anyone should be able to regulate what they say or do. A more befitting comparison would be between public relations counselors and Certified Public Accountants, because, like public relations, not all of the activities of accounting practitioners can be exclusionary or limited to hose in professional positions (Kruckeberg 24). Sample. In other words, it is common for ordinary people, as opposed to in Shattered Essay, professionals, to on Steel, utilize many of the activities involved in both public relations and in Shattered accounting. Text Sample. In my opinion, this point wins the argument for those opposed to licensing, and leads to a more realistic solution, proposed by public relations people: the in Shattered Essay development of a universal code of ethics, self-binding to all practitioners. Ethics codes in who founded google public relations do currently exist. One such code was created by the PRSA. In Shattered. However, this code is neither general enough nor does it encompass enough practitioners to solve the immense ethical dilemma faced by practitioners, as will be illustrated in the next section. The PRSA Code of Professional Standards. Most professional organizations and many businesses have codes of ethics, which are intended to set acceptable norms of behavior for working professionals and employees.

The public relations field is no exception. Pregnancy In Japan. Several public relations organizations have created ethical codes and hold their members responsible for upholding these standards. The Public Relations Society of America is one such organization that has a highly regarded code. Adopted in 1950, the PRSA Code of Professional Standards for the Practice of Public Relations was a fore-runner in the field and remains highly regarded due to its longevity. The society was established in 1948its primary mission being the unification of the public relations profession. Its first concern, according to the late Rea W. Smith, former executive vice president, was the development of an ethical code so that its members would have behavioral guidelines; management would have a clear understanding of standards; and professionals in public relations would be distinguished from shady promoters and ballyhoo advance men who, unfortunately, [had] been quick to appropriate the words public relations to Compassion in Shattered, describe their operations. Who Founded Google In 1998. (Wilcox, Ault Agee 117) This code consists of 17 articles dealing, for Compassion Essay, instance, with fairness toward clients, employers, and the public; with intentional communication of false or misleading information; and with engaging in practices that corrupt the channels of communication or processes of government. If a complaint is made about a member by a peer, that person is investigated by the societys Board of Ethical and Professional Standards. These findings are reviewed, and punitive actions can be made by the board of text essay, directors.

The PRSA may expel, suspend, censure, or reprimand a member, depending on what aspect of and how seriously the code was violated. Enforcement of these standards is effective. However, only in Shattered Essay about ten percent of the estimated 15,700 public relations professionals in the United States are members of the PRSA. In addition to encompassing only Of Pittsburgh one out of every fifteen practitioners, the society can take no legal actions against in Shattered Essay violators. The only thing the code jeopardizes is the practitioners membership status. No news releases are made about a terminated member, so little damage can be done to the persons career.

Therefore, this code, although good in theory, is not really that effectual. Only a universal code of ethics, encompassing all practitioners, will be able to do the text essay job. Development of a Universal Code of Ethics as a Solution. Public relations does not have to become a legally protected profession or be governmentally licensed and regulated. In Shattered Essay. Rather, a professional model similar to that of Certified Public Accountants could be used. No indomitable obstacles impede the development of a binding code for teen, the public relations professional community, although it might be a logistically difficult and sobering task.

Creating a universal ethical code is both a reasonable and an essential task, if one expects public relations practitioners to ever gain the respect they might actually deserve (Kruckeberg 21). Whenever someone tries to implement something new or attempts to make progress/ there are always people ready-and waiting to contradict the idea or squelch the movement. Essay. In the case of developing a universal ethics code for public relations, these people are ignorantly preventing a phenomenal plana plan which could free the term public relations ethics from Essay on Steel Mills being considered an Compassion in Shattered oxymoron. The first argument opponents have against a universal code is that there may be considerable differences of opinion, globally, about what constitutes ethical practice by those public relations professionals practicing within different social/cultural/geopolitical systems (Kruckeberg 22). However, more similarities between cultural values exist than some realize. Kruckeberg (26) states that central moral aspirations in nearly all cultures include: life, social order, family protection from arbitrary rule, prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatment, the guarantee of a place in the life of the community, and access to who founded in 1998, an equitable share of the means of Compassion in Shattered Essay, subsistence. For example, in Essay on Steel Mills all cultures, parents have duties toward their children, and children have duties to their parents; everywhere gratitude is regarded as good, the miser is despised, and the man of generous spirit is Compassion, held highly. Rather than throwing up ones hands and declaring that they do things differently in other countries, it would be useful to government does the us, put forth a general code and Essay let its interpretation and use suggest further refinements that will help adapt it to the nuances of the global community (Hunt Tirpok 9). A second argument is that of conflicting codes. Many public relations practitioners find themselves covered by more than one codea code specific to their workplace, in addition to one or more codes resulting from membership in professional associations.

However, in a study of numerous codes conducted in Mills 1985, it was found that similar themes of accuracy, objectivity, truthfulness, and completeness recurred in all, indicating that ethics codes do not change substantially from organization to organization (Hunt Tirpok 4). Furthermore, the purpose of creating a universal code is not to Compassion Essay, eliminate individual, existing codes. Rather, a universal code would serve as an umbrella, broadly covering ethical points and setting standards. Practitioners could still adhere to those codes set by their employers or professional organizations. Next, some practitioners ask, Whats the what significance whiskey rebellion use? The ten percent who are unethical will spoil it for all by their refusal to adhere to ethics. However, if leaders in the field have the Compassion in Shattered Essay connections and mechanism that help them to speak out and does the us have declare to Essay, the public that such behaviors are not the pregnancy norm and are not ethical according to Compassion Essay, accepted standards, then public perception can be changed. To give up on Mechanics of Experimental Archaeology Essay the idea of a universal code is to concede to the public their view that practitioners accept a lack of ethics as the norm for public relations (Hunt Tirpok 8). Finally, critics of the universal code argue that such a code would be meaningless due to the lack of legal power to enforce ethical behavior (Kruckeberg 22). Compassion In Shattered. This is true, but the purpose of creating a code is not to legally regulate practitioners.

The success of a universal ethics code adopted by organizations would depend largely on the acceptance and compliance of members rather than enforcement. It would take a number of years to get all practitioners involved; in the long run, those who do not abide by who founded in 1998, the standards would find it impossible to get a job. This point is discussed further below in the section titled The Timetable for Developing the Universal Code. Both the framework for such a code and Essay the timetable for its implementation have been critically thought about. Google In 1998. Hunt and Tirpok (8) suggest that the best ways to move the Compassion field toward consideration of a universal ethics code would be for someone to draft such a code and present it for government does the us, discussion. Such a code would need to be generic enough to cover the various activities that public relations entails, as well as globally-differing ethical standards. The draft would have to begin with an appeal to public relations practitioners to keep faith with the public (8). Also, in the preamble, the profession must be defined, and that definition should include the modern perception of Essay, public relations as a two-way symmetrical process. This means that communication is not only disseminated from public relations people to the publics, but feedback from the text response essay sample publics to in Shattered, the practitioners is equally as important.

The introduction would explain that first-order concerns and issues, not the specifics of a particular ethical situation, would be dealt with by the code. In ODwyers PR Services Report (8), public relations consultant and attorney Harold W. Suckenik recently proposed some key issues that could be dealt with simply and clearly. He argued that the need of clients, publics, journalists, and public relations firms would all be served by such straightforward statements as: I will not represent a client who is teen, not truthful with me or the news media. I will not represent a client who takes a position opposed to my personal beliefs (e.g., the cigarette company example given earlier).

I will not represent a client who wants to conceal his or her real identity. I will not represent a client who does not allow me to disclose that I represent this client. I will not represent a client whose name is misleading as to the source of funding or motivation of Compassion Essay, his/her group. I will not take on as a client someone who refuses to meet the media face-to-face. Neither I nor my client will obstruct or dodge those media. Most of teen in japan, these suggested rules seem to Compassion, concern the tracing of accountability of practitioners. They are general enough that they would cover the different duties practitioners must perform and would not conflict with individual organizations codes of ethics. The Timetable for Developing the Universal Code. Once the contents of a universal code have been seriously discussed, an inevitable question must be asked: Is it possible for the concept to leave the talking stage and enter the development stage? The answer is Yes. Hunt and Tirpok (9-10) suggest a well-thought out timetable.

During phase one, which is anticipated to last one year, a group of interested academics seeks foundation or corporation funding for a two-day conference on drafting the universal code. Academics and representatives of public relations organizations are invited to attend the conference. The first day of the conference is devoted to text response essay, invited papers. Compassion. The second day is a working session, with breakout groups working on different sections of the code, and a final plenary session for the purpose of assembling a draft of the code. In the second phase, a duration of two years, a task force is created to visit all of the concerned professional organizations to make presentations on the draft of the universal code.

They will accept suggestions for modification, implementation, and dissemination of the code. Phase three, lasting two years, includes the what ratification and implementation of the code by the participating public relations organizations. In the final, one-year phase, the universal code would be published. A publicity campaign would be launched to inform target publics (such as the journalists, students, and practitioners who perceive public relations as being unethical) about the code and Essay its importance to global public relations. Assessment of the who founded google in 1998 impact of and the reaction to the code will suggest the next phases of the Compassion timetable to gain acceptance for the Universal Code of was the significance of the whiskey rebellion, Ethics. Over time, the Compassion code will become common knowledge to those seeking the services of public relations practitionersjust as those who have not adopted the code will be recognized. Eventually, those who choose not to abide by its prominent principles will no longer be able to find employment.

Public Relations is Essay on Steel, a field which is viewed with much skepticism by the American public, journalists, students, and in Shattered even public relations practitioners. In order for public relations to survive as a profession, actions must be taken to change the unethical image these people hold of public relations. Several solutions have been offered by practitioners, including instilling moral values in Mechanics Archaeology Essay the home, educating about ethical/unethical behavior, hiring more honest practitioners, rewarding and publicizing good conduct, and governmentally regulating the licensing of Compassion in Shattered, practitioners. All of these propositions are unfeasible, be it because the solution would be too difficult to implement, or because it is an infringement of First Amendment rights. The way to reverse the on Steel unethical perception of public relations is to Compassion, develop a universal code of ethics. None of the four arguments popularly cited against Essay a universal code is problematic to such a task. A universal code, in fact, can be devised which will be satisfactory to those within different social/cultural/geopolitical systems, notwithstanding the gray areas of cultural values which may be present within such specific systems. Public relations practitioners should establish a professional model similar to Compassion Essay, that of Certified Public Accountants, recognizing that much of what they do professionally cannot be exclusionary. Globally, they can be confident that there is a plenitude of shared ethical values, and those which are within differing areas of moral taste can be discussed, universally accepted or negotiated. A universal code of professional ethics for public relations is conceivable. It should be pursued.

Hunt, Todd, and Andrew Tirpok. Essay. Universal Ethics Code: An Idea Whose Time Has Come. Public Relations Review Spring (1993): 1-10. Kruckeberg, Dean. Universal Ethics Code: Both Possible and Feasible. Public Relations Review Spring (1993): 2130. Pratt, Cornelius B. PRSA Members Perceptions of Public Relations Ethics.

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