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As Populations Age, a Chance for Younger Nations. By TED C. FISHMAN OCT. 14, 2010. YOU MAY KNOW that the world’s population is aging — that the number of older people is hybridity expanding faster than the number of young — but you probably don’t realize how fast this is happening. Right now, the world is evenly divided between those under 28 and those over 28. By midcentury, the median age will have risen to 40. Demographers also use another measure, in Denmark and the Essay, addition to median age, to determine whether populations are aging: “elder share.” If the share, or proportion, of people over 60 (or sometimes 65) is growing, the population is aging. By that yardstick too, the world is quickly becoming older. Pick any age cohort above the median age of 28 and you’ll find its share of the global population rising faster than that of any segment below the median. By 2018, 65-year-olds, for example, will outnumber those under 5 — a historic first. In 2050, developed countries are on track to have half as many people under 15 as they do over bhabha 60.
In short, the age mix of the world is turning upside down and at unprecedented rates. This means profound change in nearly every important relationship we have — as family members, neighbors, citizens of nations and and catherine the world. Aging populations also alter how business is bhabha hybridity done everywhere. The globalization of the eastern garbage economy is bhabha hybridity accelerating because the world is rapidly aging, and at is not true concerning in the, the same time the pace of global aging is quickened by the speed and scope of globalization. These intertwined dynamics also bear on hybridity, the international competition for the following is not concerning socializing in the, wealth and power.
The high costs of keeping our aging population healthy and out of poverty has caused the United States and other rich democracies to lose their economic and political footing. Countries on the rise amass wealth and geopolitical clout by refusing to bear those costs. Older countries lose work to younger countries. To see this process at work, look at China. In its march to prosperity, the country has encouraged hundreds of millions of hybridity its young people to move into cities. Chinese metropolises — some, like Beijing, ancient but newly sprawling, others, like Shenzen, built from scratch — are where the factories are. Foxconn Technology Group, for example, the giant electronics manufacturer that builds components for Between Greenland Essay, Dell, Hewlett-Packard and Apple in gigantic plants in Shenzen and elsewhere in urban China, will soon employ enough people to fill 60 percent of the jobs in Manhattan. Foxconn has close to 920,000 workers, nearly all of whom are under 25; in August, the company announced plans to add 400,000 more workers in the next year.
But China’s is a kind of Dorian Gray economy, its young and bhabha footloose global identity hiding a grayer reality. By and desert flower large, older workers have been excluded from its remade, globalized economy. They are left behind in their rural villages, or they are pushed from their urban homes into the ghettos of dour apartment blocks on the urban edge to make room for the new apartments and offices occupied by younger urbanites and the companies eager to hire them. Discrimination — “age apartheid” might be a better term — is one way to describe what’s going on here: no country sorts its population more ruthlessly by age. Hybridity? The problem for China is that it is eastern garbage rapidly approaching the point after which it will no longer be the relatively young country we see today. In 2015, China’s working population below the age of 65 will begin to shrink. Meanwhile, the number of people over 65 will be rising to bhabha 300 million by 2050, a threefold increase.
Richard Jackson, the director of the Global Aging Initiative at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, notes that China will be older than the United States within a generation, making it the which is not true concerning in the workplace? first big national population to age before it joins the ranks of developed countries. One of China’s biggest fears, expressed repeatedly in public pronouncements, is that it will grow old before it grows rich. To avoid this fate, China is doing all it can to lure the world’s production and capital while its work force is bhabha hybridity young. In large part, it does this by denying meaningful pensions and desert health care to its people today. Not only do the vast majority of elderly Chinese have little more than their meager savings, but today’s workers have pensions so measly as to be irrelevant. To keep the cost of manufacturing in China low for the rest of the world, the young Chinese work force is, for now, rarely provided more than token pensions, health care or disability insurance.
In aging, developed countries, older workers with long tenure are usually at their peak in terms of pay and bhabha hybridity the cost of their benefits. Here in the United States, for example, health care costs for workers who are between 50 and 65 are, on average, almost two times what they are for their peers in their 30s and 40s. When the eastern median age of workers climbs in bhabha, the United States, so does the cost of flower book insurance their employers must buy for them. China’s leadership clearly believes its young workers would lose their allure if the future costs of bhabha hybridity old age were added to starbucks their costs today. Bhabha Hybridity? When state-owned companies trimmed their ranks of tens of eastern garbage millions of workers following the country’s transition to a market economy, older workers — many only in middle age — were often let go with small pensions and replaced by younger workers. So what China offers now is workers with short tenure and negligible benefits (as well as something of a free social safety net in bhabha, the form of all the relatively young, physically fit grandparents who move in with their children to care for their grandchildren).
Companies that move production to China or buy goods from heathcliff and catherine, Chinese suppliers gain the leverage they need to rewrite the terms of employment with their older workers at home or the ability to push those workers off the payrolls altogether. In a 2006 analysis of how aging work forces influence global flows of capital, the economists Ronald Davies and Robert R. Reed noted that because “older” economies have smaller work forces and higher wages, they push investment to younger economies, which offer higher rates of return. And high costs in older economies reach beyond wages — into hybridity, taxes, which are used to pay for age-related public spending like social security. China’s youthful labor force thus helps the country maintain its low-cost economic ecosystem and flower book attract foreign investment that seeks the higher returns a “younger” economy offers, whether or not any particular pot of foreign money goes to employ young people. China is bhabha not the only country in which a young labor force attracts global businesses and investors. Starbucks? Much of the hybridity developing world, particularly in Asia and Latin America, operates the the following true concerning socializing in the same way. An outspoken champion of outsourcing, Nandan Nilekani, a former head of Infosys, the Indian technology giant, is well known for promoting India as a place to corral young workers in an otherwise aging world. Call it “global age-arbitrage.” THE OTHER PART of the feedback loop, the role globalization plays in speeding up how fast a country ages, is tied to the two big reasons that populations grow older. Bhabha? First and most obviously, more and more individuals are living longer than ever before.
Average life expectancy is increasing nearly everywhere. Longer life is itself a kind of byproduct of globalization, the result of the worldwide exchange of heathcliff public-health technology, medical breakthroughs and, perhaps the most life-giving development of all, the spread of literacy. Every person who can read has access to the world of health information, including Internet sites and government pamphlets on diseases. Countries educate their people in order to make it possible for them to enter the mainstream of global commerce and that extends their life spans — making the hybridity countries older. Above all, however, for communities or countries to and catherine age, people must have far fewer children.
Today, almost no place in the developed world has a total fertility rate of 2.1 children, the replacement rate needed to keep a population from declining. The population of bhabha hybridity nearly every developed country is expected to shrink before midcentury. When emerging nations gear up for the global economy, they tend to take two steps that encourage smaller families: they extend educational and employment opportunities to young women, and starbucks they urbanize. Urban women postpone having children until they are prepared for and established in bhabha hybridity, their jobs. Rearing children in the city is also more expensive. Cities serve the concerning socializing in the global economy, and the global economy drives people to cities. (According to the U.N. Population Fund, about half the world’s population was urban in 2007, but by 2030 nearly 80 percent of it will live in the cities of the bhabha developing world.) The world gets older. Such urbanization and globalization can take hold with remarkable swiftness.
Japan was one of the desert flower book youngest countries in bhabha hybridity, the world until around 1950, and now its population is Essay An Evaluation of a Situational Prevention arguably the world’s oldest. (Its median age will exceed 56 by midcentury, up from 43 today.) The median age in bhabha, Western Europe today is just over 40; it will rise to near 50 by about Prevention 2050. Hybridity? Population aging did not always happen so quickly. France was the first country in the world to see its share of 65-year-olds double, from 7 percent to 14 percent; this took about 115 years, starting in eastern patch, 1865. Hybridity? But China will experience the same doubling in 25 years. Essay An Evaluation Situational Crime Prevention? One exception is the United States. The country is subject to bhabha hybridity the same two big trends — longer lives, smaller families — that are aging much of the desert flower book world’s populations, but we are not growing old as fast as countries in East Asia and Western Europe. Bhabha Hybridity? Our median age will climb only 3 years, to 40, by 2050, a rate slowed by the arrival of young immigrants, including millions from heathcliff, Latin America. Of course, immigration for one country means emigration from another — and an older population left behind.
Spain, which rivals Japan as the world’s oldest country, was for much of the 20th century one of the youngest nations in the West. Before 2000, it had virtually no foreign-born residents. Today, nearly 12 percent of Spain’s population is bhabha foreign born. Among the arrivals are hundreds of thousands of Ecuadoreans (many of them female caregivers for elderly Spanish) whose absence at home increases the median age of Ecuador’s population. More than one in 10 Ecuadoreans has left in search of eastern work, and the loss of so many of the country’s youngest and most enterprising workers means Ecuador has little chance of developing.
Recently, its president initiated the Welcome Home Program to lure emigrants back with tax breaks and money to start businesses. How do globalization and bhabha an aging population affect the American workplace? According to eastern pacific patch the Economic Policy Institute, 2.3 million American jobs were lost to China alone between 2001 and 2007. Susan Houseman, an bhabha, economist at the Upjohn Institute for Employment Research in Kalamazoo, Mich., notes that older employees in Denmark and the Greenland Essay, manufacturing jobs who are low-skilled have been among the most vulnerable workers of all. And when older workers lose their jobs, they search longer for new ones than people do in other age groups. They find it hard to remake themselves with new skills and bhabha hybridity grow less employable over time and more desperate to accept low pay. This, along with the prospect of additional outsourcing abroad, drives down the earnings of Relationships Denmark those older workers who manage to hybridity stay employed. Looking at data ending in 2002, a team of researchers including economists from the World Bank and heathcliff the National Bureau of Economic Research found that older workers suffered greater income losses because of foreign outsourcing than women and union workers. Keep in mind that these results predate the recent recession and bhabha hybridity the even more difficult times that have resulted for older workers.
The ranks of the unemployed who are 55 and older grew 331 percent over desert the decade that ended last December. U.S. unemployment levels for workers over 50 are now at their all-time highs, nearly double what they were three years ago. AARP’s Public Policy Institute reports that from December 2007 to February 2010 the number of workers 55 and hybridity older who gave up looking for desert book, work rose more than fivefold, to hybridity 287,000 from 53,000. Far more people have retired early than anyone predicted. In 2009, there were 465,000 more applications for Social Security and disability benefits than there were the year before, as employers made it clear to older workers that they were not wanted. This increase was nearly 50 percent greater than what the Social Security Administration expected.
One conundrum for eastern garbage patch, aging societies is how to hybridity keep older people employed at a time when economic conditions favor the young, whether nearby or far away. The workplace left to itself comes up with some solutions, but they require older workers to accept more “flexible” conditions, which often means joining the so-called contingent work force of part-timers, self-employed contract workers and Greenland temps hired through agencies. According to the AARP Public Policy Institute, 21 percent of workers over bhabha 65 are part time, compared with 16 percent for the overall work force. And The Greenland? Self-employment is also climbing among older workers, and Americans over 50 are the most active group of bhabha hybridity entrepreneurs, often out of necessity. This partly explains an apparent contradiction: at the same time that unemployment among older workers is at a peak, the percentage of which one of is not true concerning in the older people with jobs is also near a high, because more people must work to make ends meet. In the United States, the transformation of older workers into a giant contingent work force is just getting started. This year, as baby boomers begin to hit 65, the bhabha “elder share” of the U.S. population begins a sharp climb. From 2010 to 2030, the number of Americans between 25 and 64 will climb by 16 million, but two-thirds of the increase will consist of people 55 and 64. Countries that are older than the U.S., that are further along in reshaping their workplaces, give a glimpse of the future. In Japan, retirees from the biggest companies are well provided for, but for many of the rest — workers at smaller companies, the self-employed — the flower fear of outliving their money is real. Hybridity? One in five elderly Japanese lives in starbucks ealing, poverty.
So the Japanese stay on the job when they can. Since 2006, the number of Japanese still working after the customary retirement age of 60 has risen by more than 11 million. Most are officially retired but are back at their companies, under contract. They typically earn about half their former wages. WILL THE WORLD ever grow young again? Perhaps, but not anytime soon. Today, many of the places that are growing old the bhabha fastest are in Relationships Between Denmark Greenland, the developing world, largely because that’s where urbanization is most rapid. It is bhabha hybridity hard to conjure a situation in which people move back to the countryside and ealing again have larger families. Instead, if past is bhabha hybridity prelude, today’s young countries like China will be the Greenland Essay countries that in the not-distant future go shopping for younger workers in bhabha, younger places.
Those places will be transformed by satisfying an older China’s needs, and the cycle will repeat itself: when the world finds its next young place, that country may well age even more quickly than the Essay An Evaluation of a formerly young countries that preceded it. Bhabha? The rough adjustments that global aging imposes on populations can sound bleak. Nonetheless, the challenges do not trump what we gain by living longer. Remember, too, that smaller families enable parents to make greater investments in themselves and flower the children they do have. Still, as the world gets older, we need to anticipate how this extraordinary change might undermine our communities, weaken nations and push able older people to the side. There are also sobering geopolitical consequences to consider.
It now looks as if global power rests on how willing a country is to neglect its older citizens. Faults in the welfare states of the West are highlighted by the world debt crisis. Fiscal woes driven by age-related expenses plague every level of government in the United States. Europeans take to the streets, strike and bhabha close down governments struggling to cover unsupportable pensions. The most advanced countries owe trillions in age-related public expenses.
The most straightforward solutions, like higher payroll taxes to pay for benefits, raise the cost of doing business and chase off investors and producers to lower-cost economies. Mark Haas of Duquesne University has argued that aging forces all high-income democracies into triage mode. They can pay for Relationships Between Denmark Greenland, income support and bhabha services for their elderly and drastically reduce financing for schools, defense, infrastructure and everything else, or they can decide older people will have to make do with far less. About An Evaluation Of A? China has gained new financial clout in hybridity, relation to about An Evaluation of a Situational advanced industrial nations because it has grown rich enough as the youthful factory of the bhabha world to act as the developed countries’ banker. Yet the Chinese government says the country is still too poor to Between put a more comprehensive social safety net in bhabha hybridity, place. Perhaps, but it is the financial sacrifices of its people that give China the means to lend trillions of dollars to the United States and other industrialized nations.
That’s a bargain China may be happy to accept, but it, too, is caught in the irreversible dynamic of aging, and its demographic denouement is coming. By then, the United States will be older than it is now, but younger than most of the rest of the developed world, younger than much of the developing world and far younger than China. If we understand how aging populations and economic forces interact, perhaps we can make the pacific garbage patch most of our age and our youth. Ted C. Fishman is the author of #8220;Shock of Gray: The Aging of the World#8217;s Population and How It Pits Young Against Old, Child Against Parent, Worker Against Boss, Company Against Rival and Nation Against Nation,#8221; from which this article is adapted, and which is out later this month. A version of this article appears in print on bhabha, October 17, 2010, on Page MM50 of the Sunday Magazine with the headline: The Old World.
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In persuasive writing, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince the reader to believe or do something. . Persuasive writing is often used in advertisements to get the reader to buy a product. It is also used in Relationships Denmark Greenland Essay, essays and other types of writing to get the reader to accept a point of view. In order to convince the reader you need more than opinion; you need facts or examples to back your opinion. So, be sure to do the research! Persuasive writing follows a particular. 2005 albums , Doctor of Philosophy , Essay 1013 Words | 4 Pages. 1. Descriptive essay writing An essay is a written composition of moderate length exploring a . particular issue or subject. Descriptive essays , derived from the word describe, is a genre of essay that asks the bhabha student to describe something—object, person, place, experience, emotion, situation, etc. Writers use the descriptive essay to create a vivid picture of a person, place, or thing. Unlike a narrative essay , which reveals meaning through a personal story, the. Emotion , Essay , Meaning of life 794 Words | 3 Pages.
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How to write a Continuity/Change Over Time Essay 1. Overview: Basically a change over desert book, time . essay is bhabha hybridity, a comparison essay where time periods are compared. 2. Read the question carefully and determine the theme, areas, and time periods to be compared. Make sure you write a thesis statement that specifically addresses all three pieces of this information. The thesis must also address change as well as continuity. The thesis should take a stance on level of change 3. Set up a three-column chart.
Change , Continuity , Essay 789 Words | 5 Pages. ?English 101: Portfolio _______- __________________ Essay Cover Sheet Instructor Student Identification Prefix Number Please . type or print. What was the writing assignment? (Use your teacher’s words or attach the assignment.) Assignment-Descriptive Essay The idea here is to find a place that has a function then decide whether or not it serves its purpose. The main idea should center on how well the place works relative to and catherine its intended function. Bhabha. The description must be.
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Writing Yr 12 Advanced Level Paragraphs in Area of Study Essays : a) Think. b) Read the relevant section(s) of the . text really carefully. c) Think again. Ask yourself: What ideas/points about Journeys/Change/Belonging etc. show up here? How can I tell from what has been written/presented? Look for possible quotes. d) Re-read the section(s) looking for techniques/forms/features/structures that support the eastern pacific point(s) about the focus for the Area of Study that come through it. Bhabha Hybridity. . Ender's Game , Idea , Imagination 732 Words | 3 Pages. How to write an English Essay Before you start to learn sentences, or new words, the first and also the most . important step is the pronunciation. Flower. To pronounce perfectly you should buy a tape to assist you to learn and practise. This is the fundamental step to learn English, ignore or pay no attention to this step; you will not learn proper English and you will find the later steps more and more difficult. If you are solid and accurate in pronunciation, you will find the later steps much easier. Dyslexia , English language , French language 1517 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of bhabha hybridity writing written from an starbucks ealing author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story.
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td resume help Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to provide your potential employer with important information about bhabha your background and your qualifications. Essay About An Evaluation Situational Crime Prevention. The most common method to provide information to potential employers is to hybridity, create a resume. A resume can create a vivid word picture of desert flower book yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the newest form of popular media by many people. Bhabha Hybridity. In fact, making your resume available on the World Wide Web is comparable to broadcasting it on national television during prime time hours. The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by starbucks ealing, making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an unlimited number of people and have opened new doors to audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before. Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for potential employees. If you have your resume on paper but not on the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it.
Another benefit of creating an electronic resume is cost. Many colleges provide space on bhabha hybridity their web server for their students' resumes free of charge. Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and desert flower printing costs. Rather than performing mass mailings of bhabha your resume, you can reduce the number of printed copies you will need and An Evaluation reserve these for companies you are particularly interested in. Other benefits you will receive by hybridity, creating an and catherine, HTML resume include: the ability to provide electronic links to your reference and previous employers as well as providing links to hybridity, previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the ability to make updates immediately available ease of maintainability the ability to show that you can adapt to, and use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and making it available on the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of the following socializing workplace? getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests.
Writing Your Resume in HTML Format. CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT. When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by hybridity, many universities. Be sure to have someone proofread and review your resume. Many instructors in the English department of a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to give it to him/her enough in advance to provide enough time to review it and garbage so that it will not be an inconvenience to him/her. Remember to be courteous and thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor. It is much better to have a professor see your mistakes while you have the chance to correct them than for a potential employer to see them. Bhabha Hybridity. It is important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in the correct format. Your resume is often the first impression an starbucks ealing, employer will receive.
It will be easier to bhabha, htmlify your resume if you have already created it. By creating your resume first you can focus on formatting it rather than trying to create it and format it at the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by using the save as option found under the Denmark, file utilities of your favorite word processor. If you are unable to locate a save as feature for hybridity your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support. After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the the following true workplace?, available list of formats. By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to add HTML formatting tags more easily. Although you could save your file in other formats, saving in text format will make it easier to edit because text file format does not save any formatting information. Bhabha Hybridity. Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the file.
When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is unreadable by HTML browsers, thus you will need to delete it before you will be able to proceed. Editors allow you to change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and underscoring into eastern pacific garbage the file. Hybridity. Many editors are available to use. Some of the desert flower book, most common are: edit on DOS machines and PCs; emacs and bhabha vi on UNIX workstations; and heathcliff and catherine edit on VAX/VMS machines. You can also use your favorite word processor to open a text file.
For more information on the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual. Which editor you should use depends upon the type of bhabha system you are using and your preference between the starbucks, editors on your system. Make sure you use an editor that you are familiar with. By using an unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of your time trying to learn to bhabha, use the editor rather than actually creating your resume. Throughout the Denmark and the, remainder of hybridity this document I will base the steps on the DOS editor and Denmark and the Greenland a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the editor by typing edit at a DOS prompt, or the appropriate command for the editor you intend to use. Next, choose the Open File option from the FILE menu.
Fill in the filename you choose earlier or use the browse feature to locate the file. Elements of an HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Tags are also usually paired (e.g. ltP and bhabha lt/P), the first is used to identify the beginning of the Essay An Evaluation, element and bhabha the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the element. Some tags may also contain additional information. This information should be placed inside the starbucks ealing, angle brackets. For example, to display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of tags. These tags are required by HTML browsers in bhabha hybridity, order to recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is Between Denmark Greenland a summary of the required HTML tags: The required HTML tags must be placed in the appropriate order inside and hybridity HTML file.
The following HTML is a simple example of the minimum HTML document. Using indentation can greatly improve the looks of your HTML, make it easier to read, and make it much easier to maintain. Starbucks Ealing. Although indentation is not required, you should always use it to improve your HTML. The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the indentation will not be visible when the document is bhabha viewed using a HTML browser. Starbucks. Here is the previous example written using indentation to make it easier to read. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY. The use of hybridity additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of your resume. HTML contains numerous tags to use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future. I could not possibly cover every tag here.
However, I will briefly describe some of the commonly used and most useful tags. The Following Is Not In The. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on the world wide web at http://www.sandia.gov/sci_compute/html_ref.html. The following table contains many of the most common and most useful HTML tags. You can use any of these tags by simply placing the begin tag, the hybridity, text to format, and and catherine the end tag directly in your HTML document. You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes.
See step 9 for instructions on how to bhabha, view your current HTML document. By doing this, you will become familiar with the starbucks ealing, effects of the tags. In order to ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the .html or .htm extension. To do this choose save as from the file menu. Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the bhabha, available format list. Essay An Evaluation. Finally, type your filename in bhabha, the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming. There are many tools available to help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual.
An alternative to and the Greenland Essay, creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and copy it. One method of locating useful and hybridity free images is to view clipart collections available on starbucks the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Another method of locating useful images is to use the hybridity, Yahoo search engine and search for which is not in the the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and click on the search button. This type of searching is very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to hybridity, create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to create the image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of Essay about An Evaluation Crime your resume, you should use them sparingly.
Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an hybridity, increase in the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and Between Denmark and the Essay will in bhabha hybridity, turn drive impatient viewers away from your page. In addition, you should keep the content of your images on a professional level unless the image directly relates to starbucks, your job qualification. For example it is acceptable to bhabha, have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the eastern pacific garbage patch, location and hybridity filename of your image. For example, to display an image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in book, size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to load your image.
Possible causes of this problem are: you used an bhabha, incompatible file format, the starbucks, image does not exist, you did not specify the correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the bhabha, file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the Essay about Situational Crime, file permissions of an hybridity, image to 770. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to Relationships, save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt.
There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Bhabha. Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on An Evaluation Situational the File menu. Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the bhabha, browse feature to locate the file, then click on the ok button. Your resume should be displayed in the browser window. Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an excellent way to ensure the content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in garbage patch, an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes.
Once you are familiar with the bhabha, process of creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in Relationships and the Greenland, any order. You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the hybridity, links you've created using your HTML browser. Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the one of the following is not true concerning socializing, impression a potential employer has on your resume. Broken links are usually the result of bhabha a typographical error or a link to a web site that no longer exists. Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider.
Many universities provide the resources for students to install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to Between Denmark, obtain information. You can often locate the bhabha, Webmaster through an email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and Relationships Between Greenland Essay all of the images you have used to the directory your web provider specifies. Hybridity. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it. Visit the flower book, URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible. In addition you should always mail a paper copy of hybridity your resume to any potential employers.
By showing sincere interest, you will increase an which one of the following is not true socializing in the, employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the bhabha, Java environment. Java is Denmark Essay a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the Web. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to bring the reader a broader range of information. In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of explaining to the reader how to create his/her first Java application. Bhabha Hybridity. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course. The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code. I strongly agree with Mr. Desert Flower Book. Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to develop a Java application.
An entire section of Java Report is devoted to bhabha hybridity, Product Review. In this section the authors review Java related products and desert book provide information to the reader. This information was the equivalent of bhabha a Consumer Reports article. This section is a great source of information about individual products. In general, Java Report is a great source of information relating to the use and development of Java applications for about of a Situational Prevention any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the scope of the bhabha, average reader. Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . Desert Book. 3 February 1997, sec. C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an HTML resume.
The article, which appeared in The New York Times' Taking In the hybridity, Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Pacific Garbage. Some of the topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the hybridity, searchability of ealing HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the process. Mr. Rampe also discusses the importance of writing your HTML resume in bhabha, the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to Relationships and the, address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and bhabha hybridity just ignore the dehumanization of it all.
In addition, the article provides the URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and should be reviewed by anyone who decides to create and HTML resume. Starbucks Ealing. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an ample amount of information and resources necessary to create an HTML resume. Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the necessity of an HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories. Bhabha. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and eastern patch useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is hybridity currently over a year old, the information it contains is pacific garbage patch accurate, precise and very helpful. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions.
Next the authors validate the document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Next the bhabha hybridity, authors discuss the general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and variations. In addition the document contains an easy to use index which allows the reader to jump directly to any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. The Following Concerning In The Workplace?. In addition it is well written, well organized and very easy to use. This document is an excellent source of information for both the hybridity, novice and expert HTML programmers.
Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.
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fieldwork essay Visit the SocMag-Archive. Fieldwork in Social Work Education and Training: Issues and Challenges in the Case of Eastern and Southern Africa. Jotham Dhemba , National University of Lesotho. Social work is an international profession and similarly social work education internationally has always embraced both academic and practical components. Social work education comprises of a theoretical component taught in the classroom and field- based education involving integration of the hybridity, academic aspect and practice. Fieldwork, which is also known as field instruction, field placement, field education, practicum or internship is eastern pacific garbage patch therefore an integral component of bhabha social work education. Though the definition of social work seems to starbucks, be a contested terrain, the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) and the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) (2004) convey, its basic meaning quite concisely.
They contend that, The social work profession promotes social change, problem- solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Utilising theories of human behavior and social systems, social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their environment. Hybridity? Principles of human rights and about An Evaluation of a Prevention, social justice are fundamental to social work. From this definition it is clear that social workers follow a formal procedure in helping clients to cope with their life tasks and to realise their aspirations. This involves developing their ability to hybridity, deal with their problems more effectively at any given point in time and also in the future. Furthermore, social work intervention helps people connect with needed resources and to negotiate problematic situations which might also involve changes to existing structures where these present blocks to human growth and development. To this end, social work is professional discipline anchored on a unified curriculum consisting of both theory and fieldwork components.
As shall be noted later, social work education started in Europe and North America in the last quarter of the 19th century. Its history goes back to the era of the Charity Organisation Societies when students learned social work by apprenticeship, that is, learning by doing. As Royse, Dhooper and Rompf (2007) observe, students obtained firsthand knowledge of poverty and adverse conditions through “applied philanthropy”. They also note that the apprenticeship model emphasised learning by doing and “deriving knowledge from that activity”. By the end of the 19th century, social work gradually evolved from the apprenticeship method with the starbucks ealing, launching of the first social work training in 1898. This was a summer school established at the New York City Charity Organisation Society.
Six years later, in bhabha 1904, the Society established the New York School of Philanthropy, which offered eight months training in and catherine social work. Further to these developments, George, (1982) cited in Royse, et al (2007) contents that Mary Richmond, an early social work practitioner, teacher and theoretician, advocated for complementing field learning with academic education. Bhabha? Royse, et al (2007) also quote Austin (1986) who observes that early in Essay An Evaluation Crime social work education, students spent about half of their academic time in field settings. From the above, it is quite evident that fieldwork is the forerunner of social work education and that theory and practice are equally important. Leading social work scholars, among them, Kaseke (1986), Mupedziswa, (1997) and Osie-Hwedie (1996) also unequivocally assert the importance of both field instruction (fieldwork) and bhabha hybridity, classroom instruction. On the same note, Hall (1995:38) asserts that, “a generally accepted view today is that field instruction is Between Denmark Essay of equal importance to bhabha, academic instruction”. Essay An Evaluation Prevention? It is therefore self-evident, even from the history of hybridity social work in Europe and starbucks, North America where it originated, that social work education and bhabha hybridity, training has always embraced the view that fieldwork and classroom instruction are essential elements of social work education.
However, the eastern pacific patch, reality at social work training institutions as Kaseke (1990) observes, is that fieldwork is bhabha hybridity marginalised when compared to its academic counterpart. Kaseke asserts that, “there is very little written on this subject matter, thus leaving social work educators, students and field supervisors without any meaningful and comprehensive guide to ealing, field instruction”. Bhabha? Mupedziswa (1997) also corroborates this view, contenting that “social work institutions need to recast their fieldwork in order to give it equal importance to academic instruction”. This study assessed the fieldwork programme at three social work training institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa, namely the flower, Institute of Social Work (ISW) in Tanzania, National University of Lesotho (NUL) and School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe. The International Association of Schools of Social Work Directory of 2002, an hybridity, umbrella body of social work training institutions lists these training institutions as members. NUL and the School of Social Work, University of Relationships Denmark Essay Zimbabwe offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in social work, while at the time of the study the ISW offered a three year undergraduate Advanced Diploma in Social Work as its main programme. The study focused on the Advanced Diploma (ISW) and Bachelor of Social Work students. 2 The role of fieldwork in social work education and training.
It is hybridity quite evident from the foregoing, that fieldwork has always been part of social work training and is an integral component of social work education. As Hepworth and Rooney and Larsen (2002) observe, fieldwork engages the student in supervised social work practice and ealing, provides opportunities to marry theory and practice. A widely used definition of bhabha hybridity fieldwork is eastern garbage patch one by Hamilton and Else (1983) who view it as, “a consciously planned set of experiences occurring in a practice setting designed to bhabha hybridity, move students from eastern garbage their initial level of understanding, skills and attitudes to levels associated with autonomous social work practice.” As the social work curriculum is based on both theory and bhabha, practice, the provision of Between Denmark and the Essay sound theory is critical as is fieldwork experience. It is bhabha critically important for social work students to acquire, in a classroom environment, practice principles, values and ethics and the scientific basis for the following true concerning socializing, practice. Equally important is the bhabha hybridity, need to apply the theoretical content covered in the classroom, to real life situations as part of heathcliff a student’s preparation to become a professional social worker. It takes more than academic fitness, but also evidence-based knowledge, field- tested skills and a wealth of hands-on-experience to become a fully backed social worker.
As Shardlow and Doel (1996:6) observe, “..these two contexts for learning about social work practice, class and fieldwork need to be integrated, complementary and mutually consistent”. They further point out that the challenge for bhabha, the student and which one of the following is not true concerning in the, agency supervisor, is to make this a reality”. Kaseke (1986:55) also observes that fieldwork is an instrument of socialisation since it prepares the student for a future role as a social work practitioner. He further asserts that, “a meaningful fieldwork placement is one that enhances the students understanding of the social work profession and the nature of the bhabha hybridity, problems the profession addresses itself to”. Learning therefore takes place at various levels, that is, intellectually, emotionally and practically. Furthermore, fieldwork is an opportunity for aligning theoretical knowledge and one of true concerning in the workplace?, learning, with the hybridity, needs of society and the market place. It also affords students the opportunity to take responsibility for addressing people’s problems. Starbucks? Therefore, if handled effectively, fieldwork becomes an important tool in bringing about a social work curriculum that is appropriate and responsive to topical social development issues. Fieldwork also develops in students, skills that will enable them to respond appropriately to the needs of clients.
Furthermore, Safari (1986) observes that, “In the field, the hybridity, student comes into contact with needy people, their problems, their reactions to the problems and their attitude towards social workers and thus the student discovers his or her ability to help”. It is through observation and doing the job and feeling responsible for the job of helping people to cope with their problems, that social work students acquire skills. Likewise, fieldwork is Essay An Evaluation Situational designed to give the student exposure and experience on the functioning of social welfare agencies and social welfare provisioning. The general purpose of fieldwork is therefore, to acquaint students with actual social work situations, in hybridity preparation for pacific patch, professional social work practice. It is an instrument that is used to initiate students into the profession through among others, inculcation and assimilation of social work ethics, principles and values. It is widely accepted that it is a basic requirement of hybridity all professions to have a knowledge base, principles, values and ethics that guide and inform practice. Similarly, it is through opportunities to one of the following is not true concerning socializing, practice that students assimilate these principles, values and ethics of the profession. Statement of the problem.
While ideally, the bhabha, academic and practical components of social work education are of equal importance, there are indications that fieldwork is starbucks ealing marginalised. Furthermore, there is evidence showing that agency supervisors who are responsible for the practical training of social work students are not sufficiently resourced to undertake their supervisory role and yet they are expected to provide opportunities for students to bhabha hybridity, develop their professional knowledge and heathcliff, skills. Furthermore, as pointed out elsewhere, Kaseke (1990) observes that there is not much documented literature on this subject and as a result stakeholders do not have an bhabha hybridity, adequate grasp of the issues involved, which inevitably compromises the quality of students learning on fieldwork. Justification of the study. Considering that there is not much literature on fieldwork in social work education and training, this study is intended to make a contribution towards filling this gap. The study builds on existing knowledge on fieldwork, including but not limited to the fieldwork curriculum, the management of Between fieldwork and the needs and challenges faced by students, agency supervisors and training institutions.
The aim of this study was to bhabha hybridity, examine the nature, form and challenges experienced in the management of fieldwork at social work training institutions in Eastern and flower, Southern Africa. The specific objectives of the study were: · to establish the nature, form and content of fieldwork practice at selected social work training institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa. · to ascertain whether fieldwork is treated as being equally important to its theory counterpart (classroom instruction) at the selected training institutions. · to hybridity, assess the needs and challenges faced by training institutions, agency supervisors and students on desert flower book fieldwork. This section covers the research design for the study, target population, sample and sampling techniques, data gathering and data analysis. This study is essentially descriptive in nature though it has both quantitative and qualitative elements. The study covered fieldwork coordinators, agency supervisors and bhabha, students on block fieldwork placement from the Institute of Social Work (ISW) in Tanzania, the National University of Lesotho (NUL) and the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe.
An agency supervisor is an which the following concerning workplace?, employee of the organisation providing the setting for social work students learning. He/she is responsible for the teaching and learning of a social work student on practical attachment. A sample of 10 students and bhabha hybridity, their agency supervisors participated in the study from the Institute of starbucks Social Work, where the bhabha hybridity, author was on sabbatical leave in 2004. At the National University of Lesotho, a total of 78 fourth year students and six agency supervisors were covered in the study in 2009 and at the School of Social Work, University of ealing Zimbabwe, a total of 16 second and third year students and their supervisors also participated the study in 2007 and 2008. Therefore, a total of 104 students and 32 agency supervisors from the three institutions participated in the study. Students and agency supervisors. In the case of the ISW and School of Social Work students and hybridity, their agency supervisors, these were covered in the course of students’ assessments. The students who participated in the study were those allocated by fieldwork coordinators at the respective institutions. There was therefore no attempt to stratify the study population as data were gathered from An Evaluation Situational Crime students that were allocated for assessment. As for NUL students it was not possible to have a similar arrangement as students assessment was carried out as a team of school supervisors. This being the case, a 100% sample of fourth year students was covered after they had completed their fieldwork.
Purposive sampling was used for agency supervisors as it was quite convenient to select the supervisors of students who participated in hybridity the study. In the case of NUL only six agency supervisors were selected for Relationships and the, the study also on the basis of convenience and willingness to be interviewed. Bhabha Hybridity? Purposive sampling was also used for fieldwork coordinators (a member of the fieldwork committee at Institute of Social Work and a Lecturer involved with students placements at NUL) at the respective institutions. Data gathering techniques. An interview guide covering selected themes on the nature and practice of fieldwork was used to obtain information from the target population comprising of social work students, agency supervisors and fieldwork coordinators. However, in the case of NUL, a questionnaire was used for students and about Crime Prevention, this was completed after they returned from fieldwork. Assessment of students at the National University of Lesotho was done as a team of school supervisors and logistically it was not convenient to hybridity, interview them for the study at the time of their assessment. Relevant fieldwork documents at the selected institutions were also reviewed. Data was analysed on garbage patch the basis of selected themes, including the nature and form of fieldwork, duration of hybridity fieldwork, agency and socializing in the workplace?, school supervision, and challenges experienced in the management and practice of fieldwork among others.
Presentation and discussion of findings. The purpose of this study was basically to unravel the nature and form of fieldwork and challenges in the management of fieldwork at the Institute of Social Work in Tanzania, National University of Lesotho and the School of Social Work, University of bhabha Zimbabwe. The study is premised on the view that while theory and fieldwork are of equal importance in social work education and training, the latter is marginalised and it is not accorded the ealing, importance that it deserves. Bhabha? The presentation and discussion of the study findings shall be done simultaneously in the sub-sections below. Forms of starbucks ealing fieldwork. Social work training institutions generally use one of four forms of fieldwork, namely concurrent, block, a combination of both concurrent and block and bhabha hybridity, in-service placements. The block placement arrangement is used at the three institutions. However, the ISW uses both concurrent and heathcliff, block placements. The National University of hybridity Lesotho also uses block placements at desert flower the undergraduate level and concurrent fieldwork at the postgraduate level (MSW).
A block fieldwork placement refers to a continuous full-time engagement of a social work student at a fieldwork agency for a period ranging from at least a month to one year depending on the institution. The School of Social Work, University of bhabha Zimbabwe, uses the block placement system with fieldwork occurring in the second and third year for a period of three months and three weeks. At the ISW, there is only one block placement which occurs in desert the third year for hybridity, a period of three months. At the National University of Lesotho, the block fieldwork occurs in ealing the second year for a month and in the third and fourth year for two months respectively. Concurrent fieldwork at bhabha the ISW occurs at the second year level. As pointed out earlier, the School of Social Work uses block placements only, but first year students also go for field visits in the second semester as part of their orientation to the profession. Concurrent fieldwork occurs simultaneously with classroom instruction.
The students’ time is divided between classroom learning and field based learning. Typically, students spend two or three days in a week at the field agency and Essay of a Crime, they take classes for the remaining two or three days of the hybridity, week. The beauty of the concurrent fieldwork arrangement lies in the simultaneous and immediate application of theory learnt in the classroom into practice. Relationships Denmark Greenland Essay? An added advantage of this form of hybridity fieldwork is that students can share and readily discuss their placements while at Relationships Denmark and the Essay the training institution and this can contribute to effective integration of theory and practice. However a major limitation of this arrangement is that students have to be attached at agencies within the proximity of the training institution. Therefore, on this basis, students are denied the opportunity to work in remote rural areas where social work intervention is probably most needed as most social work training institutions are urban based. Furthermore, this arrangement may not work well as the student has to be reporting to both his or her training institution and the agency supervisor. Hybridity? In support of this view, Hall (1990: 31) states that, “ the disadvantage is the possibility that the fieldwork experience becomes more fragmented and students are unable to do justice to either theory or practice because of the overlapping expectations of workplace and school”. It is also difficult to come up with a structured programme for a student working on a part-time basis. There is also the risk of agency supervisors neglecting or forgetting about their students as they only meet them twice or thrice in a week. It appears the flower, rationale for using concurrent placements initially at first or second year levels or both levels and then blocks at higher levels is to offer students an bhabha hybridity, opportunity to An Evaluation of a Crime, gradually acquaint themselves with the profession.
This is so considering that in the first or second year of the bhabha hybridity, course expectations are not very high. Students are required to eastern garbage patch, observe the supervisor in action and to perform tasks befitting their level. Placements at this level are therefore of an exploratory character with the student carrying out tasks that are not too complex. However, at higher levels the student is expected to be active at a practical level, carrying out tasks that have considerable scope for increasingly independent execution of bhabha duties and skills. While the block placement allows students to book, immerse themselves in the work of an agency and bhabha, is more conducive to eastern garbage, the pursuit of intellectually and professionally stimulating tasks, it also has its weaknesses. One problem is the postponement of application of theory into practice until a certain level of theoretical knowledge is attained.
Additionally, there is a clear separation of the bhabha hybridity, timing and context in which theory and practice take place as students are away from the training institution for a period ranging from one month to a year. On the other hand, in-service placements are appropriate in situations where social work training is designed as part of in-service training. Students go back to their places of employment, for fieldwork experience in the context of their existing jobs. Hall (1990) cites the example of the Department of and catherine Social Services, at Kaduna Polytechnic in Nigeria which offers an in-service training course and bhabha hybridity, uses in-service placements for its fieldwork programme. Pacific? However, such programmes are mounted on a one-off basis and are therefore not sustainable in the long term as it would be difficult to guarantee a regular supply of students from employers. It must however be appreciated that the choice of the most appropriate form or combination, is based on the demands of bhabha hybridity classroom instruction in terms of course configuration and the amount of time required for each subject. Each institution is therefore unique in terms of prevailing circumstances and conditions but it is important to Essay, settle for the most effective form of fieldwork that guarantees professional growth and development for the student. Nature of fieldwork.
In describing the nature of fieldwork at the institutions covered in bhabha hybridity the study it is important to refer to the IASSW and IFSW (2004) Global Standards on Social Work Education and of special interest are standards relating to duration of fieldwork, expectations and requirements for agency supervision, the fieldwork curriculum. These shall be examined in the sections below. It also needs to which is not true in the workplace?, be noted from the bhabha, outset that it was very evident from the collation of data gathered that, in many regards, fieldwork at the three institutions is generally the same. There are however significant differences in the structure of and catherine fieldwork in terms of form, level at which it takes place and the duration of fieldwork. As pointed out earlier, the block fieldwork placement is common at the three institutions, though there are differences in bhabha duration and the levels at which it occurs.
The other notable difference, as indicated previously, is that the ISW and NUL (at Masters Level only) also utilise concurrent fieldwork. Duration of fieldwork. As stipulated by and catherine the IASSW and IFSW the bhabha hybridity, duration of fieldwork should be sufficient and challenging enough to prepare students for desert flower, professional practice. Cumulatively, the bhabha hybridity, total fieldwork time for block placements at undergraduate level (at the social work training institutions covered) is as follows: No. of block placements Total duration. Institute of Social Work (one block placement) 3 months.
National University of Lesotho (3 blocks at second, third. and fourth year) 5 months. School of Social Work (2 block placements at 6 months, 3 wks. Second and third year) (27 wks) It is pacific garbage patch clear from the table above, that if one considers block placements only, the total fieldwork time is longest at bhabha hybridity the School of Social Work, where it is 6 months and three weeks. It is shortest at the Institute of Social Work (as of ealing 2004) where it is only three months.
This is probably because the Institute is hybridity not a degree awarding institution as it offers a three-year Advanced Diploma in Social Work whereas the other institutions offer four-year degree programmes. The majority of the desert book, agency supervisors and students from the Institute of Social Work were of the view that three months of fieldwork is rather short. Considering that the students only have one block placement, it is understandable that they preferred a longer placement which enables both students and supervisors to pursue the fieldwork objectives to the end. The majority of School of bhabha hybridity Social Work students and their supervisors were also of the An Evaluation of a Crime Prevention, opinion that their fieldwork was short. This is also understandable considering that the fieldwork takes place at two levels, that is, second and third year, for 8 and 15 weeks respectively. Though cumulatively, the fieldwork is longer at the School of Social Work, the bhabha, time allocated per block placement was considered to be inadequate. While there are both advantages and disadvantages in having a single or multiple block placements at the undergraduate level, it is important to consider these in relation to pacific patch, the context in which training is taking place and the learning needs of students. An obvious advantage of at least two block placements is that students get varied experiences, which prepares them to function in any social work setting when they qualify.
A single placement limits the student particularly in third world contexts where resources are scarce and poverty abounds. At NUL, students go for block placement at the beginning of second, third and fourth year. Though the duration of fieldwork was deemed to be generally inadequate by agency supervisors, 72% of the students expressed contentment with the two months fieldwork. Fewer students indicated that the fieldwork was too long. The main reason given for this position was that social work students do not have holidays, unlike students in hybridity other programmes. Fieldwork at NUL takes place during the long vacation from end of and the Greenland May to July thus denying students their much needed break in between semesters. Some students actually wished it could be reduced to one month and they argued that it should be done during semester time, like the bhabha, academic courses. The other problem raised was that students on fieldwork experience acute financial hardships as they do not get adequate financial support from government. One student summed up the problems pointing out that, “We endure so many hardships as a result of inadequate financial support when doing fieldwork. It is desert book actually a mystery that some of us last the two months. Two months is too long without financial support for our upkeep and hybridity, transport”.
Some also indicated that they did not have much work to occupy them and they were therefore idle most of the time. Essay Crime? However, agency supervisors were of the feeling that eight weeks was too short considering that students needed time to learn and to adjust to the new situation. While it would be difficult to prescribe the form and duration of fieldwork as training institutions are unique in their own right, what is emerging from this study is the need for block fieldwork to be long enough for students to develop and consolidate their skills. The Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) (in the USA), quoted in Royce, Dhooper and Rompf (2007) requires that undergraduate students do fieldwork for a minimum of 400 contact hours. This translates to a minimum fieldwork period of three months. Therefore, if one is to use the CSWE standard to measure the adequacy of the duration of bhabha hybridity fieldwork, then clearly, the three institutions covered in this study meet this requirement. The study found that the three institutions covered in the study did not have a comprehensive fieldwork curriculum. At best, the fieldwork curriculum at the institutions is starbucks fragmented. Hybridity? However, when compared to its academic counterpart (classroom instruction) taught courses have a well-organised structure based on about a clearly defined curriculum. This makes the learning and teaching manageable and focused.
Shardlow and Doel (1996:79-80) suggest the following advantages of having a fieldwork curriculum: the requirements of social work practice can shape the content of what is learned by students through a practice curriculum. students are empowered through the existence of an bhabha, explicit written practice curriculum; they can have an understanding of required learning at the start of the placement. practice teachers are empowered through the development of the curriculum as a common currency, so there is an opportunity and Relationships Denmark and the, a reason to become connected with each other. It is possible to organise practice learning so that simple or core skills, basic knowledge or fundamental values are learned before the hybridity, more complex elements are attempted. It is possible with a practice curriculum to about of a Crime, know when learning has been achieved in bhabha given areas, and Between Denmark Essay, then to bhabha hybridity, move on to other components of the curriculum or to find ways to compensate for deficiencies in the learning environment – if, for example, live practice with clients is not generating appropriate learning experiences, other methods of learning can be used. The curriculum allows for garbage, a range of different learning opportunities and learning methods to be used: this can be well- organised and planned before the start of the placement. The examination of bhabha hybridity practice competence can be structured and harmonized to fit with the pace of learning. An analysis of the fieldwork course materials at the institutions reveals that the only documents in use are fieldwork placement forms, that is, background information forms, assessment forms, guidelines for Relationships Greenland, writing fieldwork reports, contract forms in the case of the School of Social Work, and letters of introduction for students. Of concern was the lack of Fieldwork Manuals at two of the bhabha hybridity, institutions. Manuals provide valuable reference material for students, agency supervisors and social work educators. Though the School of starbucks ealing Social Work has a fieldwork manual, which probably needs updating as it is a 1990 publication, agency supervisors indicated that they did not have this manual.
Commenting on the state of fieldwork at one of the bhabha, training institutions one fieldwork coordinator had this to say, “Agency supervisors sometimes phone us wanting to starbucks, know the expectations for fieldwork. To be honest with you we are also at a loss as to what to tell them. We do not have much documented materials on fieldwork apart from students’ fieldwork reports and fieldwork placement forms. Hybridity? I believe this is also compounded by the fact that our students go to a diversity of agencies which makes it difficult to come up with a universally applicable fieldwork programme”. Criteria used in heathcliff the choice of fieldwork agencies.
Students covered in the study were placed in a wide range of agencies including but not limited to government ministries and departments, local authorities and Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs), indicating flexibility in the criteria used to bhabha, select fieldwork agencies. Understandably, agencies of first choice for students were those that pay allowances and other incentives. As most students did not get allowances for fieldwork, the need to minimise costs on transport and and catherine, other expenses prompted them to choose agencies within close proximity to their places of residence and bhabha hybridity, not necessarily those with the greatest potential for provision of learning. However on the part of training institutions, the main consideration was to minimise the costs involved in fieldwork assessment visits (follow-ups). Based on this reality, most placements were in urban settings. However, at Essay about An Evaluation Situational Prevention the School of bhabha Social Work, students did their fieldwork only in Harare (where it is located). Furthermore, the fieldwork coordinator at one of the institutions pointed out that “there is an book, acute shortage of bhabha hybridity agencies willing to take students on placement which makes it difficult to starbucks, secure placements for all the students if we are to follow a rigid selection criterion.
We have to be flexible if all students are to be placed”. However, on the same note, the bhabha, Council on Social Work Education, quoted in Royse et al (2007:5) stipulates that fieldwork should occur in settings that reinforce students, “identification with the purposes, values, and ethics of the profession, fosters the integration of empirical and practice based knowledge and promotes the development of professional competency”. Quality of agency supervision. Though the use of qualified and experienced supervisors is quite critical in any professional training this study found the supervision of students by non-social workers to be a common practice. The study revealed that, 52.5% of agency supervisors of the School of Social Work students were not social workers. 50% of the ISW students indicated that their supervisors were not social workers. 63% of social work students at NUL indicated that they were supervised by non social workers. These findings are perhaps not surprising considering that there is an acute shortage of suitable fieldwork agencies and in the case of the book, School of Social Work in Zimbabwe this was also compounded by the massive exodus of qualified social workers during the period 2002-2009 as a result of political and economic challenges facing the country then. Also problematic is that most of the hybridity, agency supervisors did not have a programme showing how the teaching and learning was to happen.
It was indicated that training institutions did not provide them with any guidelines and as a result they just ended up improvising. Essay About Situational Crime? An agency supervisor at hybridity one of the District Social Welfare Offices in Lesotho indicated that there was just an understanding with the student, that in a five-day week she would spend two days doing administrative work at the office and three days in the community carrying out home assessment visits. Similarly, the majority of the heathcliff and catherine, students from the National University of Lesotho indicated that their programme was rather informal. Bhabha Hybridity? Both students and agency supervisors revealed that school supervisors did not ask for any written material on their assessment visits. Heathcliff And Catherine? On this basis, it is clear that without a guide or programme (curriculum to hybridity, follow) it is difficult to achieve the objectives of fieldwork, let alone provide quality learning and mentoring for students, particularly in the case of unqualified supervisors. Support given to agency supervisors. It cannot be overstressed that field supervisors play an important role in Essay about An Evaluation of a Situational Prevention the training of social workers. They are partners in the training process with responsibility to manage the transition from the bhabha hybridity, classroom to the field and this requires support and continuous dialogue between the training institution, the ealing, agency supervisor and the agency. It is probably in recognition of bhabha hybridity this fact that the IASSW and IFSW spell out the starbucks, need for hybridity, training institutions to provide fieldwork manuals and orientation to agency supervisors.
This enables them to appreciate expectations of their role it also ensures that students are given optimum opportunity to develop professional knowledge and eastern garbage patch, skill. Notwithstanding the recognition that the role of agency supervisor is ever more prominent and important, this study found that there is no clear exposition of the process and nature of the teaching and learning required on fieldwork. It was reported that the training institutions are severely constrained in bhabha their efforts to empower agency supervisors to perform their roles effectively. As pointed out earlier, the majority of the agency supervisors were just groping in which one of the following true the dark as they did not have a clear understanding of the nature and type of learning to provide students on fieldwork. This is consistent with the view expressed by one non-social work agency supervisor that they experience problems completing students’ assessment forms at the end of the placement as some of them are not social workers and they also do not understand what is expected of them. ”As a result most of the assessment forms are returned to the training institution incomplete” commented the supervisor.
With the increasing use of non- social work agency supervisors, the provision of training and other supportive materials such as handbooks/manuals would go a long way in enhancing the quality of practice learning. Though the IASSW and IFSW (to which they are members) stipulate the need for training institutions to capacitate agency supervisors, none of the institutions had provided training or fieldwork materials in bhabha the five years prior to the study. In spite of the School of Social Work having a fieldwork-training manual, agency supervisors indicated that they did not have the manual, an indication that there is probably not much interaction between the institution and agency supervisors. Ironically, the study also found that all agency supervisors had not received any training or orientation prior to the commencement of fieldwork. Though it was reported that training workshops had been held in heathcliff and catherine the past, such workshops need to be carried out regularly. In the case of the School of Social Work, the last training workshop was said to have taken place in 2001. As Shardlow and Doel (1996:4) observe, “learning, for a student on placement, does not just happen by osmosis; it requires effort and planning by both student and practice teacher”. These problems were reported to be largely as a result of lack of or under-funding of fieldwork related activities. Challenges in the management of fieldwork. The study also sought to find out challenges experienced in the management of fieldwork.
It was found that the shortage of qualified and experienced supervisors, shortage of suitable fieldwork agencies, inadequate funding and timing of fieldwork were the major challenges the institutions have to grapple with. These challenges are examined below: (a) Shortage of qualified agency supervisors. The shortage of qualified and experienced agency supervisors was found to hybridity, be a common problem. Invariably, qualified and experienced social workers should handle practical training in social work. However, the situation obtaining in the three countries, that is, Lesotho, Tanzania and Zimbabwe is that not all social development and welfare agencies, where students can do their fieldwork, employ social workers. Heathcliff And Catherine? This is the case as it is not a requirement in the three countries for one to bhabha hybridity, be registered as a social worker in order to practice social work. Resultantly, there is an infiltration of the profession as some of the social welfare agencies are employing workers from other disciplines to carry out social work roles. What is also worrisome is that even in some agencies that are primary social work settings, students can be supervised by non- social workers.
A typical example is that of the Department of Social Welfare in Zimbabwe, which started employing non- social workers from heathcliff around 2002, ostensibly because of the shortage of social workers. Many social workers were reported to have left the country mainly to South Africa and the United Kingdom, owing to political and economic problems experienced then. In the case of NUL, this problem is also compounded by the timing of bhabha fieldwork as second, third and eastern garbage, fourth year students go for fieldwork at the same time. This is bhabha a big challenge considering that a total of about 300 students have to be accommodated in the few agencies operating in the country. However, as social work is ealing practiced in a variety of settings, it is inevitable that non- social workers will have to supervise social work students. Furthermore, in spite of this crippling shortage of qualified agency supervisors, it needs to be acknowledged that non-social work agency supervisors have contributed significantly to the survival of the fieldwork programme at institutions covered in the study. (b) Shortage of suitable agencies for fieldwork. Both students and bhabha hybridity, fieldwork coordinators confirmed that it was a nightmare securing fieldwork placements. In the case of the School of Social Work in Harare, this problem was compounded by the fact that students were restricted to Harare-based agencies only, where the School is situated. It was indicated that owing to financial constraints, it was difficult for school supervisors to starbucks, follow up students on fieldwork outside Harare.
Furthermore, Departments of Social Welfare in the three countries, which ideally should host the bulk of the students on fieldwork, were reportedly seriously short-staffed and not well resourced in bhabha hybridity terms office space and transport. Resultantly only a limited number of students could be absorbed. Also compounding the problem was competition from heathcliff and catherine other programmes at the training institutions that were also sending their students for bhabha, attachment at organisations that traditionally took social workers only. Apparently this was a problem at the three institutions covered in the study. Eastern Garbage? Furthermore, as pointed out earlier, the timing of fieldwork at NUL, where three groups go for the fieldwork at the same time is also contributing to the shortage of suitable agencies. Hybridity? The challenge is placing about 300 students at eastern pacific garbage one go. Financial support for students on bhabha hybridity fieldwork. The majority of the students failed to understanding why they did not get fieldwork allowances and yet they had a longer academic year than other students. While third and fourth year students at NUL and at the ISW received allowances for fieldwork, the amount was considered to be very little and flower, not even enough to cover their transport costs. School of Social Work students indicated that they did not get any allowances for fieldwork.
On this basis students wondered how they were expected to apply themselves seriously “on an empty stomach”. It was complained that support levels for social work students’ are the same with students in purely academic programmes without a practical component. This is also an anomaly, if one considers that the bhabha hybridity, academic year for eastern patch, social work students, unlike students in other programmes is extended by two to bhabha, three months and that they also have to contend with transport and subsistence costs while on fieldwork. Lack of visitation by school supervisors. While school supervision visits provide opportunities for students and agency supervisors to get guidance in pursuing the Relationships Between Denmark and the Greenland Essay, objectives of the placement and also to assess their performance students such visits were reported to be erratic at one of the institutions. Bhabha Hybridity? This obviously diminishes the importance of fieldwork and it also undermines the learning process. A follow-up of this matter with the fieldwork coordinator concerned revealed that fieldwork does not always get a budgetary allocation and that if allocated it is always far from adequate. “Sometimes school supervisors use their own resources for supervision and obviously there is limit to Essay of a Crime Prevention, which they can subsidise fieldwork” commented the fieldwork coordinator.
Highlighting the importance of supervision visits by school supervisors, Raphael and Rosenblum (1987) observe that even the planning of these visits, has an energising effect on the placement. They assert that: “Knowing that a faculty member who represents the School will be coming on a specific date to review progress stimulates the field instructor and hybridity, student to assess their progress. The heightened energy available at which the following is not concerning socializing in the such times should be consciously used to facilitate change for educational purposes” (1987:158) Failure by school supervisors to assess students on fieldwork can have a very damaging effect on the morale of the student and agency supervisor and the placement in general. Bhabha Hybridity? It can also affect relations between the training institution and fieldwork agencies. At one of the institutions it was reported that some agencies threatened to stop taking students if school supervisors did not make follow-up visits. While it is evident from the study that fieldwork in social work education is marginalised, there are indeed very promising prospects of raising its effectiveness and quality of training. Of significance is that the institutions covered in the study treat fieldwork as a compulsory course notwithstanding the many challenges faced in its management. Furthermore, as pointed out elsewhere, it is also encouraging that the IASSW and IFSW came up with qualifying standards for Essay about An Evaluation of a Situational, social work education, fieldwork included. If adopted, these would go a long way in transforming fieldwork practice.
Specifically, these include, among others, the need to appoint qualified and experienced agency supervisors, the need to provide orientation and training to the same, the need for social work training institutions to develop fieldwork manuals and also to ensure that the duration of fieldwork is sufficient. Furthermore, while the challenges confronting the hybridity, fieldwork component in the training of social workers require intervention at the highest level, that is government and desert book, management at training institutions, it is also necessary that those involved in fieldwork execute their roles and responsibilities effectively. Specifically, the hybridity, fieldwork coordinator, agency supervisor, students and school supervisors should be competent and resourceful in Relationships Between Denmark Essay discharging their roles and responsibilities. Suggestions on strengthening fieldwork. It is clear that fieldwork in social work education faces a number of challenges. While the primary responsibility for addressing these challenges lies with the social work department or unit, there are issues that need the intervention of central administration at the training institution. Chief among these is inadequate funding for fieldwork related activities. Second is the lack of a clear learning content for fieldwork. Third, and on a related matter, is the lack of training for agency supervisors. In order to bhabha hybridity, develop fieldwork to its fullest potential and to enhance the quality of learning, it is necessary to adopt the following measures:
There is need to allocate and to increase the budget for fieldwork. Social work is Essay about An Evaluation Crime a professional discipline that has both theoretical and practical components. There is hybridity therefore need for training institutions to allocate a separate budget for fieldwork in order to cater for the training of agency supervisors, school supervision, development of desert fieldwork manuals and other related activities. Development of fieldwork manuals. It is imperative that schools of bhabha social work develop their own fieldwork manuals, covering the book, teaching and learning content for fieldwork. This is particularly important considering that each institution is unique in terms of the prevailing socio-economic conditions, challenges and experiences, the social work education curriculum in hybridity a given country.
Manuals are a useful resource for social work educators, students and agency supervisors. Introduction of a taught course on fieldwork theory and practice. While the academic component of social work education (theory courses) also prepares students for Relationships Denmark Greenland Essay, their field education, it is the hybridity, view of the author that fieldwork should have a taught component (in class). This will address two concerns. First, is the concern that students lack knowledge and eastern garbage patch, understanding of learning experiences on fieldwork. This would therefore prepare students for actual practice and also facilitate the learning process during fieldwork. Secondly, there seems to be a lack of interest on fieldwork issues among social work scholars, which partly explains the paucity of bhabha literature on the subject. A taught component on fieldwork would contribute towards generating research interest on fieldwork issues among social work scholars.
In making this suggestion, the author is aware that the Institute of Social Work in Tanzania has a theory course on field instruction that students take before proceeding for field practice. Total duration of block fieldwork. While the duration of fieldwork varies at the three institutions, it is recommended that the total duration be at An Evaluation Situational Crime least six months, which is bhabha 960 contact hours. This is based on the view that fieldwork needs to flower, be long enough for students and field supervisors to accomplish their objectives for bhabha, the placement. With regard to Essay about An Evaluation of a, the number of placements at the undergraduate level, it is necessary to have two, preferably in hybridity the last two years of training. However, this should be at different agencies, which gives students varied experience through learning to adjust to new situations. Dominelli, L. (2002) International Association of Schools of Relationships Denmark Greenland Social Work Directory.
UK, IASSW and Department of Social Work, University of Southampton. Hall, N. (1990) Social Work Training in Africa: A Fieldwork Manual. Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa. Hepworth, D.H, Rooney, R. and Larsen, J.A. (2002) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. U.S.A., Brooks/Cole.
IASSW and IFSW (2004) Global Standards for the Education and Training of the Social work Profession. Bern, Switzerland, Sage. Kaseke, E. (1986) The Role of Fieldwork in Social Work Training, in: Social Development and Rural Fieldwork. Proceedings of a workshop held in Harare. Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa, pp. 52-62. Kaseke, E. (1990) Foreword, in: Hall, N. Social Work Training in Africa: A Fieldwork Manual.
Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa. Mupedziswa, R. (1997) Training Social Workers in an Environment of Economic Reforms: The Mother of all Challenges? In: Social Work/Maatskaplke Werk Vol. 33 (33) Osei-Hwedie, K. (1996) The Indigenisation of Social Work Practice and Education, in: Africa: The Dilemma of Theory and Method in Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk, 32 (3) Raphael, F. B. and Rosenblum, A. Bhabha Hybridity? F. (1987) “An Operational Guide to the Faculty Field Liaison Role”, in: Social Casework: The Journal of about Crime Prevention Contemporary Social Work, March, pp.156-163. Royse, D., Dhooper, S. and Rompf, E. (2007) Field Instruction: A Guide for Social Work Students. Boston, Pearson Educational Inc. Safari, J. (1986) The Role of Fieldwork in the Training of hybridity Social Workers for Rural Development in: Social Development and Rural Fieldwork, Proceedings of a Workshop held 10-14 June, Harare.
Zimbabwe. Journal of Social Development in Africa, pp 74-80. Shardlow, S. and Doel, M. (1996) Practice Learning and Teaching. London, Macmillan Press Ltd.